Contact Manager Web API

This sample uses ASP.NET Web API to build a simple contact manager application. The application consists of a contact manager web API that is used by an ASP.NET MVC application, a Windows Phone application, and a Windows 8 app to display and manage a list of contacts.

C# (1.9 MB)
 
 
 
 
 
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8/16/2012
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// Knockout JavaScript library v2.1.0
// (c) Steven Sanderson - http://knockoutjs.com/
// License: MIT (http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php)

(function(window,document,navigator,undefined){
var DEBUG=true;
!function(factory) {
    // Support three module loading scenarios
    if (typeof require === 'function' && typeof exports === 'object' && typeof module === 'object') {
        // [1] CommonJS/Node.js
        var target = module['exports'] || exports; // module.exports is for Node.js
        factory(target);
    } else if (typeof define === 'function' && define['amd']) {
        // [2] AMD anonymous module
        define(['exports'], factory);
    } else {
        // [3] No module loader (plain <script> tag) - put directly in global namespace
        factory(window['ko'] = {});
    }
}(function(koExports){
// Internally, all KO objects are attached to koExports (even the non-exported ones whose names will be minified by the closure compiler).
// In the future, the following "ko" variable may be made distinct from "koExports" so that private objects are not externally reachable.
var ko = typeof koExports !== 'undefined' ? koExports : {};
// Google Closure Compiler helpers (used only to make the minified file smaller)
ko.exportSymbol = function(koPath, object) {
	var tokens = koPath.split(".");

	// In the future, "ko" may become distinct from "koExports" (so that non-exported objects are not reachable)
	// At that point, "target" would be set to: (typeof koExports !== "undefined" ? koExports : ko)
	var target = ko;

	for (var i = 0; i < tokens.length - 1; i++)
		target = target[tokens[i]];
	target[tokens[tokens.length - 1]] = object;
};
ko.exportProperty = function(owner, publicName, object) {
  owner[publicName] = object;
};
ko.version = "2.1.0";

ko.exportSymbol('version', ko.version);
ko.utils = new (function () {
    var stringTrimRegex = /^(\s|\u00A0)+|(\s|\u00A0)+$/g;

    // Represent the known event types in a compact way, then at runtime transform it into a hash with event name as key (for fast lookup)
    var knownEvents = {}, knownEventTypesByEventName = {};
    var keyEventTypeName = /Firefox\/2/i.test(navigator.userAgent) ? 'KeyboardEvent' : 'UIEvents';
    knownEvents[keyEventTypeName] = ['keyup', 'keydown', 'keypress'];
    knownEvents['MouseEvents'] = ['click', 'dblclick', 'mousedown', 'mouseup', 'mousemove', 'mouseover', 'mouseout', 'mouseenter', 'mouseleave'];
    for (var eventType in knownEvents) {
        var knownEventsForType = knownEvents[eventType];
        if (knownEventsForType.length) {
            for (var i = 0, j = knownEventsForType.length; i < j; i++)
                knownEventTypesByEventName[knownEventsForType[i]] = eventType;
        }
    }
    var eventsThatMustBeRegisteredUsingAttachEvent = { 'propertychange': true }; // Workaround for an IE9 issue - https://github.com/SteveSanderson/knockout/issues/406

    // Detect IE versions for bug workarounds (uses IE conditionals, not UA string, for robustness)
    var ieVersion = (function() {
        var version = 3, div = document.createElement('div'), iElems = div.getElementsByTagName('i');

        // Keep constructing conditional HTML blocks until we hit one that resolves to an empty fragment
        while (
            div.innerHTML = '<!--[if gt IE ' + (++version) + ']><i></i><![endif]-->',
            iElems[0]
        );
        return version > 4 ? version : undefined;
    }());
    var isIe6 = ieVersion === 6,
        isIe7 = ieVersion === 7;

    function isClickOnCheckableElement(element, eventType) {
        if ((ko.utils.tagNameLower(element) !== "input") || !element.type) return false;
        if (eventType.toLowerCase() != "click") return false;
        var inputType = element.type;
        return (inputType == "checkbox") || (inputType == "radio");
    }

    return {
        fieldsIncludedWithJsonPost: ['authenticity_token', /^__RequestVerificationToken(_.*)?$/],

        arrayForEach: function (array, action) {
            for (var i = 0, j = array.length; i < j; i++)
                action(array[i]);
        },

        arrayIndexOf: function (array, item) {
            if (typeof Array.prototype.indexOf == "function")
                return Array.prototype.indexOf.call(array, item);
            for (var i = 0, j = array.length; i < j; i++)
                if (array[i] === item)
                    return i;
            return -1;
        },

        arrayFirst: function (array, predicate, predicateOwner) {
            for (var i = 0, j = array.length; i < j; i++)
                if (predicate.call(predicateOwner, array[i]))
                    return array[i];
            return null;
        },

        arrayRemoveItem: function (array, itemToRemove) {
            var index = ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(array, itemToRemove);
            if (index >= 0)
                array.splice(index, 1);
        },

        arrayGetDistinctValues: function (array) {
            array = array || [];
            var result = [];
            for (var i = 0, j = array.length; i < j; i++) {
                if (ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(result, array[i]) < 0)
                    result.push(array[i]);
            }
            return result;
        },

        arrayMap: function (array, mapping) {
            array = array || [];
            var result = [];
            for (var i = 0, j = array.length; i < j; i++)
                result.push(mapping(array[i]));
            return result;
        },

        arrayFilter: function (array, predicate) {
            array = array || [];
            var result = [];
            for (var i = 0, j = array.length; i < j; i++)
                if (predicate(array[i]))
                    result.push(array[i]);
            return result;
        },

        arrayPushAll: function (array, valuesToPush) {
            if (valuesToPush instanceof Array)
                array.push.apply(array, valuesToPush);
            else
                for (var i = 0, j = valuesToPush.length; i < j; i++)
                    array.push(valuesToPush[i]);
            return array;
        },

        extend: function (target, source) {
            if (source) {
                for(var prop in source) {
                    if(source.hasOwnProperty(prop)) {
                        target[prop] = source[prop];
                    }
                }
            }
            return target;
        },

        emptyDomNode: function (domNode) {
            while (domNode.firstChild) {
                ko.removeNode(domNode.firstChild);
            }
        },

        moveCleanedNodesToContainerElement: function(nodes) {
            // Ensure it's a real array, as we're about to reparent the nodes and
            // we don't want the underlying collection to change while we're doing that.
            var nodesArray = ko.utils.makeArray(nodes);

            var container = document.createElement('div');
            for (var i = 0, j = nodesArray.length; i < j; i++) {
                ko.cleanNode(nodesArray[i]);
                container.appendChild(nodesArray[i]);
            }
            return container;
        },

        setDomNodeChildren: function (domNode, childNodes) {
            ko.utils.emptyDomNode(domNode);
            if (childNodes) {
                for (var i = 0, j = childNodes.length; i < j; i++)
                    domNode.appendChild(childNodes[i]);
            }
        },

        replaceDomNodes: function (nodeToReplaceOrNodeArray, newNodesArray) {
            var nodesToReplaceArray = nodeToReplaceOrNodeArray.nodeType ? [nodeToReplaceOrNodeArray] : nodeToReplaceOrNodeArray;
            if (nodesToReplaceArray.length > 0) {
                var insertionPoint = nodesToReplaceArray[0];
                var parent = insertionPoint.parentNode;
                for (var i = 0, j = newNodesArray.length; i < j; i++)
                    parent.insertBefore(newNodesArray[i], insertionPoint);
                for (var i = 0, j = nodesToReplaceArray.length; i < j; i++) {
                    ko.removeNode(nodesToReplaceArray[i]);
                }
            }
        },

        setOptionNodeSelectionState: function (optionNode, isSelected) {
            // IE6 sometimes throws "unknown error" if you try to write to .selected directly, whereas Firefox struggles with setAttribute. Pick one based on browser.
            if (navigator.userAgent.indexOf("MSIE 6") >= 0)
                optionNode.setAttribute("selected", isSelected);
            else
                optionNode.selected = isSelected;
        },

        stringTrim: function (string) {
            return (string || "").replace(stringTrimRegex, "");
        },

        stringTokenize: function (string, delimiter) {
            var result = [];
            var tokens = (string || "").split(delimiter);
            for (var i = 0, j = tokens.length; i < j; i++) {
                var trimmed = ko.utils.stringTrim(tokens[i]);
                if (trimmed !== "")
                    result.push(trimmed);
            }
            return result;
        },

        stringStartsWith: function (string, startsWith) {
            string = string || "";
            if (startsWith.length > string.length)
                return false;
            return string.substring(0, startsWith.length) === startsWith;
        },

        buildEvalWithinScopeFunction: function (expression, scopeLevels) {
            // Build the source for a function that evaluates "expression"
            // For each scope variable, add an extra level of "with" nesting
            // Example result: with(sc[1]) { with(sc[0]) { return (expression) } }
            var functionBody = "return (" + expression + ")";
            for (var i = 0; i < scopeLevels; i++) {
                functionBody = "with(sc[" + i + "]) { " + functionBody + " } ";
            }
            return new Function("sc", functionBody);
        },

        domNodeIsContainedBy: function (node, containedByNode) {
            if (containedByNode.compareDocumentPosition)
                return (containedByNode.compareDocumentPosition(node) & 16) == 16;
            while (node != null) {
                if (node == containedByNode)
                    return true;
                node = node.parentNode;
            }
            return false;
        },

        domNodeIsAttachedToDocument: function (node) {
            return ko.utils.domNodeIsContainedBy(node, node.ownerDocument);
        },

        tagNameLower: function(element) {
            // For HTML elements, tagName will always be upper case; for XHTML elements, it'll be lower case.
            // Possible future optimization: If we know it's an element from an XHTML document (not HTML),
            // we don't need to do the .toLowerCase() as it will always be lower case anyway.
            return element && element.tagName && element.tagName.toLowerCase();
        },

        registerEventHandler: function (element, eventType, handler) {
            var mustUseAttachEvent = ieVersion && eventsThatMustBeRegisteredUsingAttachEvent[eventType];
            if (!mustUseAttachEvent && typeof jQuery != "undefined") {
                if (isClickOnCheckableElement(element, eventType)) {
                    // For click events on checkboxes, jQuery interferes with the event handling in an awkward way:
                    // it toggles the element checked state *after* the click event handlers run, whereas native
                    // click events toggle the checked state *before* the event handler.
                    // Fix this by intecepting the handler and applying the correct checkedness before it runs.
                    var originalHandler = handler;
                    handler = function(event, eventData) {
                        var jQuerySuppliedCheckedState = this.checked;
                        if (eventData)
                            this.checked = eventData.checkedStateBeforeEvent !== true;
                        originalHandler.call(this, event);
                        this.checked = jQuerySuppliedCheckedState; // Restore the state jQuery applied
                    };
                }
                jQuery(element)['bind'](eventType, handler);
            } else if (!mustUseAttachEvent && typeof element.addEventListener == "function")
                element.addEventListener(eventType, handler, false);
            else if (typeof element.attachEvent != "undefined")
                element.attachEvent("on" + eventType, function (event) {
                    handler.call(element, event);
                });
            else
                throw new Error("Browser doesn't support addEventListener or attachEvent");
        },

        triggerEvent: function (element, eventType) {
            if (!(element && element.nodeType))
                throw new Error("element must be a DOM node when calling triggerEvent");

            if (typeof jQuery != "undefined") {
                var eventData = [];
                if (isClickOnCheckableElement(element, eventType)) {
                    // Work around the jQuery "click events on checkboxes" issue described above by storing the original checked state before triggering the handler
                    eventData.push({ checkedStateBeforeEvent: element.checked });
                }
                jQuery(element)['trigger'](eventType, eventData);
            } else if (typeof document.createEvent == "function") {
                if (typeof element.dispatchEvent == "function") {
                    var eventCategory = knownEventTypesByEventName[eventType] || "HTMLEvents";
                    var event = document.createEvent(eventCategory);
                    event.initEvent(eventType, true, true, window, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, false, false, false, false, 0, element);
                    element.dispatchEvent(event);
                }
                else
                    throw new Error("The supplied element doesn't support dispatchEvent");
            } else if (typeof element.fireEvent != "undefined") {
                // Unlike other browsers, IE doesn't change the checked state of checkboxes/radiobuttons when you trigger their "click" event
                // so to make it consistent, we'll do it manually here
                if (isClickOnCheckableElement(element, eventType))
                    element.checked = element.checked !== true;
                element.fireEvent("on" + eventType);
            }
            else
                throw new Error("Browser doesn't support triggering events");
        },

        unwrapObservable: function (value) {
            return ko.isObservable(value) ? value() : value;
        },

        toggleDomNodeCssClass: function (node, className, shouldHaveClass) {
            var currentClassNames = (node.className || "").split(/\s+/);
            var hasClass = ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(currentClassNames, className) >= 0;

            if (shouldHaveClass && !hasClass) {
                node.className += (currentClassNames[0] ? " " : "") + className;
            } else if (hasClass && !shouldHaveClass) {
                var newClassName = "";
                for (var i = 0; i < currentClassNames.length; i++)
                    if (currentClassNames[i] != className)
                        newClassName += currentClassNames[i] + " ";
                node.className = ko.utils.stringTrim(newClassName);
            }
        },

        setTextContent: function(element, textContent) {
            var value = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(textContent);
            if ((value === null) || (value === undefined))
                value = "";

            'innerText' in element ? element.innerText = value
                                   : element.textContent = value;

            if (ieVersion >= 9) {
                // Believe it or not, this actually fixes an IE9 rendering bug
                // (See https://github.com/SteveSanderson/knockout/issues/209)
                element.style.display = element.style.display;
            }
        },

        ensureSelectElementIsRenderedCorrectly: function(selectElement) {
            // Workaround for IE9 rendering bug - it doesn't reliably display all the text in dynamically-added select boxes unless you force it to re-render by updating the width.
            // (See https://github.com/SteveSanderson/knockout/issues/312, http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5908494/select-only-shows-first-char-of-selected-option)
            if (ieVersion >= 9) {
                var originalWidth = selectElement.style.width;
                selectElement.style.width = 0;
                selectElement.style.width = originalWidth;
            }
        },

        range: function (min, max) {
            min = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(min);
            max = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(max);
            var result = [];
            for (var i = min; i <= max; i++)
                result.push(i);
            return result;
        },

        makeArray: function(arrayLikeObject) {
            var result = [];
            for (var i = 0, j = arrayLikeObject.length; i < j; i++) {
                result.push(arrayLikeObject[i]);
            };
            return result;
        },

        isIe6 : isIe6,
        isIe7 : isIe7,
        ieVersion : ieVersion,

        getFormFields: function(form, fieldName) {
            var fields = ko.utils.makeArray(form.getElementsByTagName("input")).concat(ko.utils.makeArray(form.getElementsByTagName("textarea")));
            var isMatchingField = (typeof fieldName == 'string')
                ? function(field) { return field.name === fieldName }
                : function(field) { return fieldName.test(field.name) }; // Treat fieldName as regex or object containing predicate
            var matches = [];
            for (var i = fields.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
                if (isMatchingField(fields[i]))
                    matches.push(fields[i]);
            };
            return matches;
        },

        parseJson: function (jsonString) {
            if (typeof jsonString == "string") {
                jsonString = ko.utils.stringTrim(jsonString);
                if (jsonString) {
                    if (window.JSON && window.JSON.parse) // Use native parsing where available
                        return window.JSON.parse(jsonString);
                    return (new Function("return " + jsonString))(); // Fallback on less safe parsing for older browsers
                }
            }
            return null;
        },

        stringifyJson: function (data, replacer, space) {   // replacer and space are optional
            if ((typeof JSON == "undefined") || (typeof JSON.stringify == "undefined"))
                throw new Error("Cannot find JSON.stringify(). Some browsers (e.g., IE < 8) don't support it natively, but you can overcome this by adding a script reference to json2.js, downloadable from http://www.json.org/json2.js");
            return JSON.stringify(ko.utils.unwrapObservable(data), replacer, space);
        },

        postJson: function (urlOrForm, data, options) {
            options = options || {};
            var params = options['params'] || {};
            var includeFields = options['includeFields'] || this.fieldsIncludedWithJsonPost;
            var url = urlOrForm;

            // If we were given a form, use its 'action' URL and pick out any requested field values
            if((typeof urlOrForm == 'object') && (ko.utils.tagNameLower(urlOrForm) === "form")) {
                var originalForm = urlOrForm;
                url = originalForm.action;
                for (var i = includeFields.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
                    var fields = ko.utils.getFormFields(originalForm, includeFields[i]);
                    for (var j = fields.length - 1; j >= 0; j--)
                        params[fields[j].name] = fields[j].value;
                }
            }

            data = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(data);
            var form = document.createElement("form");
            form.style.display = "none";
            form.action = url;
            form.method = "post";
            for (var key in data) {
                var input = document.createElement("input");
                input.name = key;
                input.value = ko.utils.stringifyJson(ko.utils.unwrapObservable(data[key]));
                form.appendChild(input);
            }
            for (var key in params) {
                var input = document.createElement("input");
                input.name = key;
                input.value = params[key];
                form.appendChild(input);
            }
            document.body.appendChild(form);
            options['submitter'] ? options['submitter'](form) : form.submit();
            setTimeout(function () { form.parentNode.removeChild(form); }, 0);
        }
    }
})();

ko.exportSymbol('utils', ko.utils);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayForEach', ko.utils.arrayForEach);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayFirst', ko.utils.arrayFirst);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayFilter', ko.utils.arrayFilter);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayGetDistinctValues', ko.utils.arrayGetDistinctValues);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayIndexOf', ko.utils.arrayIndexOf);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayMap', ko.utils.arrayMap);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayPushAll', ko.utils.arrayPushAll);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayRemoveItem', ko.utils.arrayRemoveItem);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.extend', ko.utils.extend);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.fieldsIncludedWithJsonPost', ko.utils.fieldsIncludedWithJsonPost);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.getFormFields', ko.utils.getFormFields);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.postJson', ko.utils.postJson);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.parseJson', ko.utils.parseJson);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.registerEventHandler', ko.utils.registerEventHandler);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.stringifyJson', ko.utils.stringifyJson);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.range', ko.utils.range);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.toggleDomNodeCssClass', ko.utils.toggleDomNodeCssClass);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.triggerEvent', ko.utils.triggerEvent);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.unwrapObservable', ko.utils.unwrapObservable);

if (!Function.prototype['bind']) {
    // Function.prototype.bind is a standard part of ECMAScript 5th Edition (December 2009, http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/ECMA-262.pdf)
    // In case the browser doesn't implement it natively, provide a JavaScript implementation. This implementation is based on the one in prototype.js
    Function.prototype['bind'] = function (object) {
        var originalFunction = this, args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments), object = args.shift();
        return function () {
            return originalFunction.apply(object, args.concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments)));
        };
    };
}

ko.utils.domData = new (function () {
    var uniqueId = 0;
    var dataStoreKeyExpandoPropertyName = "__ko__" + (new Date).getTime();
    var dataStore = {};
    return {
        get: function (node, key) {
            var allDataForNode = ko.utils.domData.getAll(node, false);
            return allDataForNode === undefined ? undefined : allDataForNode[key];
        },
        set: function (node, key, value) {
            if (value === undefined) {
                // Make sure we don't actually create a new domData key if we are actually deleting a value
                if (ko.utils.domData.getAll(node, false) === undefined)
                    return;
            }
            var allDataForNode = ko.utils.domData.getAll(node, true);
            allDataForNode[key] = value;
        },
        getAll: function (node, createIfNotFound) {
            var dataStoreKey = node[dataStoreKeyExpandoPropertyName];
            var hasExistingDataStore = dataStoreKey && (dataStoreKey !== "null");
            if (!hasExistingDataStore) {
                if (!createIfNotFound)
                    return undefined;
                dataStoreKey = node[dataStoreKeyExpandoPropertyName] = "ko" + uniqueId++;
                dataStore[dataStoreKey] = {};
            }
            return dataStore[dataStoreKey];
        },
        clear: function (node) {
            var dataStoreKey = node[dataStoreKeyExpandoPropertyName];
            if (dataStoreKey) {
                delete dataStore[dataStoreKey];
                node[dataStoreKeyExpandoPropertyName] = null;
            }
        }
    }
})();

ko.exportSymbol('utils.domData', ko.utils.domData);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.domData.clear', ko.utils.domData.clear); // Exporting only so specs can clear up after themselves fully

ko.utils.domNodeDisposal = new (function () {
    var domDataKey = "__ko_domNodeDisposal__" + (new Date).getTime();
    var cleanableNodeTypes = { 1: true, 8: true, 9: true };       // Element, Comment, Document
    var cleanableNodeTypesWithDescendants = { 1: true, 9: true }; // Element, Document

    function getDisposeCallbacksCollection(node, createIfNotFound) {
        var allDisposeCallbacks = ko.utils.domData.get(node, domDataKey);
        if ((allDisposeCallbacks === undefined) && createIfNotFound) {
            allDisposeCallbacks = [];
            ko.utils.domData.set(node, domDataKey, allDisposeCallbacks);
        }
        return allDisposeCallbacks;
    }
    function destroyCallbacksCollection(node) {
        ko.utils.domData.set(node, domDataKey, undefined);
    }

    function cleanSingleNode(node) {
        // Run all the dispose callbacks
        var callbacks = getDisposeCallbacksCollection(node, false);
        if (callbacks) {
            callbacks = callbacks.slice(0); // Clone, as the array may be modified during iteration (typically, callbacks will remove themselves)
            for (var i = 0; i < callbacks.length; i++)
                callbacks[i](node);
        }

        // Also erase the DOM data
        ko.utils.domData.clear(node);

        // Special support for jQuery here because it's so commonly used.
        // Many jQuery plugins (including jquery.tmpl) store data using jQuery's equivalent of domData
        // so notify it to tear down any resources associated with the node & descendants here.
        if ((typeof jQuery == "function") && (typeof jQuery['cleanData'] == "function"))
            jQuery['cleanData']([node]);

        // Also clear any immediate-child comment nodes, as these wouldn't have been found by
        // node.getElementsByTagName("*") in cleanNode() (comment nodes aren't elements)
        if (cleanableNodeTypesWithDescendants[node.nodeType])
            cleanImmediateCommentTypeChildren(node);
    }

    function cleanImmediateCommentTypeChildren(nodeWithChildren) {
        var child, nextChild = nodeWithChildren.firstChild;
        while (child = nextChild) {
            nextChild = child.nextSibling;
            if (child.nodeType === 8)
                cleanSingleNode(child);
        }
    }

    return {
        addDisposeCallback : function(node, callback) {
            if (typeof callback != "function")
                throw new Error("Callback must be a function");
            getDisposeCallbacksCollection(node, true).push(callback);
        },

        removeDisposeCallback : function(node, callback) {
            var callbacksCollection = getDisposeCallbacksCollection(node, false);
            if (callbacksCollection) {
                ko.utils.arrayRemoveItem(callbacksCollection, callback);
                if (callbacksCollection.length == 0)
                    destroyCallbacksCollection(node);
            }
        },

        cleanNode : function(node) {
            // First clean this node, where applicable
            if (cleanableNodeTypes[node.nodeType]) {
                cleanSingleNode(node);

                // ... then its descendants, where applicable
                if (cleanableNodeTypesWithDescendants[node.nodeType]) {
                    // Clone the descendants list in case it changes during iteration
                    var descendants = [];
                    ko.utils.arrayPushAll(descendants, node.getElementsByTagName("*"));
                    for (var i = 0, j = descendants.length; i < j; i++)
                        cleanSingleNode(descendants[i]);
                }
            }
        },

        removeNode : function(node) {
            ko.cleanNode(node);
            if (node.parentNode)
                node.parentNode.removeChild(node);
        }
    }
})();
ko.cleanNode = ko.utils.domNodeDisposal.cleanNode; // Shorthand name for convenience
ko.removeNode = ko.utils.domNodeDisposal.removeNode; // Shorthand name for convenience
ko.exportSymbol('cleanNode', ko.cleanNode);
ko.exportSymbol('removeNode', ko.removeNode);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.domNodeDisposal', ko.utils.domNodeDisposal);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.domNodeDisposal.addDisposeCallback', ko.utils.domNodeDisposal.addDisposeCallback);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.domNodeDisposal.removeDisposeCallback', ko.utils.domNodeDisposal.removeDisposeCallback);
(function () {
    var leadingCommentRegex = /^(\s*)<!--(.*?)-->/;

    function simpleHtmlParse(html) {
        // Based on jQuery's "clean" function, but only accounting for table-related elements.
        // If you have referenced jQuery, this won't be used anyway - KO will use jQuery's "clean" function directly

        // Note that there's still an issue in IE < 9 whereby it will discard comment nodes that are the first child of
        // a descendant node. For example: "<div><!-- mycomment -->abc</div>" will get parsed as "<div>abc</div>"
        // This won't affect anyone who has referenced jQuery, and there's always the workaround of inserting a dummy node
        // (possibly a text node) in front of the comment. So, KO does not attempt to workaround this IE issue automatically at present.

        // Trim whitespace, otherwise indexOf won't work as expected
        var tags = ko.utils.stringTrim(html).toLowerCase(), div = document.createElement("div");

        // Finds the first match from the left column, and returns the corresponding "wrap" data from the right column
        var wrap = tags.match(/^<(thead|tbody|tfoot)/)              && [1, "<table>", "</table>"] ||
                   !tags.indexOf("<tr")                             && [2, "<table><tbody>", "</tbody></table>"] ||
                   (!tags.indexOf("<td") || !tags.indexOf("<th"))   && [3, "<table><tbody><tr>", "</tr></tbody></table>"] ||
                   /* anything else */                                 [0, "", ""];

        // Go to html and back, then peel off extra wrappers
        // Note that we always prefix with some dummy text, because otherwise, IE<9 will strip out leading comment nodes in descendants. Total madness.
        var markup = "ignored<div>" + wrap[1] + html + wrap[2] + "</div>";
        if (typeof window['innerShiv'] == "function") {
            div.appendChild(window['innerShiv'](markup));
        } else {
            div.innerHTML = markup;
        }

        // Move to the right depth
        while (wrap[0]--)
            div = div.lastChild;

        return ko.utils.makeArray(div.lastChild.childNodes);
    }

    function jQueryHtmlParse(html) {
        var elems = jQuery['clean']([html]);

        // As of jQuery 1.7.1, jQuery parses the HTML by appending it to some dummy parent nodes held in an in-memory document fragment.
        // Unfortunately, it never clears the dummy parent nodes from the document fragment, so it leaks memory over time.
        // Fix this by finding the top-most dummy parent element, and detaching it from its owner fragment.
        if (elems && elems[0]) {
            // Find the top-most parent element that's a direct child of a document fragment
            var elem = elems[0];
            while (elem.parentNode && elem.parentNode.nodeType !== 11 /* i.e., DocumentFragment */)
                elem = elem.parentNode;
            // ... then detach it
            if (elem.parentNode)
                elem.parentNode.removeChild(elem);
        }

        return elems;
    }

    ko.utils.parseHtmlFragment = function(html) {
        return typeof jQuery != 'undefined' ? jQueryHtmlParse(html)   // As below, benefit from jQuery's optimisations where possible
                                            : simpleHtmlParse(html);  // ... otherwise, this simple logic will do in most common cases.
    };

    ko.utils.setHtml = function(node, html) {
        ko.utils.emptyDomNode(node);

        if ((html !== null) && (html !== undefined)) {
            if (typeof html != 'string')
                html = html.toString();

            // jQuery contains a lot of sophisticated code to parse arbitrary HTML fragments,
            // for example <tr> elements which are not normally allowed to exist on their own.
            // If you've referenced jQuery we'll use that rather than duplicating its code.
            if (typeof jQuery != 'undefined') {
                jQuery(node)['html'](html);
            } else {
                // ... otherwise, use KO's own parsing logic.
                var parsedNodes = ko.utils.parseHtmlFragment(html);
                for (var i = 0; i < parsedNodes.length; i++)
                    node.appendChild(parsedNodes[i]);
            }
        }
    };
})();

ko.exportSymbol('utils.parseHtmlFragment', ko.utils.parseHtmlFragment);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.setHtml', ko.utils.setHtml);

ko.memoization = (function () {
    var memos = {};

    function randomMax8HexChars() {
        return (((1 + Math.random()) * 0x100000000) | 0).toString(16).substring(1);
    }
    function generateRandomId() {
        return randomMax8HexChars() + randomMax8HexChars();
    }
    function findMemoNodes(rootNode, appendToArray) {
        if (!rootNode)
            return;
        if (rootNode.nodeType == 8) {
            var memoId = ko.memoization.parseMemoText(rootNode.nodeValue);
            if (memoId != null)
                appendToArray.push({ domNode: rootNode, memoId: memoId });
        } else if (rootNode.nodeType == 1) {
            for (var i = 0, childNodes = rootNode.childNodes, j = childNodes.length; i < j; i++)
                findMemoNodes(childNodes[i], appendToArray);
        }
    }

    return {
        memoize: function (callback) {
            if (typeof callback != "function")
                throw new Error("You can only pass a function to ko.memoization.memoize()");
            var memoId = generateRandomId();
            memos[memoId] = callback;
            return "<!--[ko_memo:" + memoId + "]-->";
        },

        unmemoize: function (memoId, callbackParams) {
            var callback = memos[memoId];
            if (callback === undefined)
                throw new Error("Couldn't find any memo with ID " + memoId + ". Perhaps it's already been unmemoized.");
            try {
                callback.apply(null, callbackParams || []);
                return true;
            }
            finally { delete memos[memoId]; }
        },

        unmemoizeDomNodeAndDescendants: function (domNode, extraCallbackParamsArray) {
            var memos = [];
            findMemoNodes(domNode, memos);
            for (var i = 0, j = memos.length; i < j; i++) {
                var node = memos[i].domNode;
                var combinedParams = [node];
                if (extraCallbackParamsArray)
                    ko.utils.arrayPushAll(combinedParams, extraCallbackParamsArray);
                ko.memoization.unmemoize(memos[i].memoId, combinedParams);
                node.nodeValue = ""; // Neuter this node so we don't try to unmemoize it again
                if (node.parentNode)
                    node.parentNode.removeChild(node); // If possible, erase it totally (not always possible - someone else might just hold a reference to it then call unmemoizeDomNodeAndDescendants again)
            }
        },

        parseMemoText: function (memoText) {
            var match = memoText.match(/^\[ko_memo\:(.*?)\]$/);
            return match ? match[1] : null;
        }
    };
})();

ko.exportSymbol('memoization', ko.memoization);
ko.exportSymbol('memoization.memoize', ko.memoization.memoize);
ko.exportSymbol('memoization.unmemoize', ko.memoization.unmemoize);
ko.exportSymbol('memoization.parseMemoText', ko.memoization.parseMemoText);
ko.exportSymbol('memoization.unmemoizeDomNodeAndDescendants', ko.memoization.unmemoizeDomNodeAndDescendants);
ko.extenders = {
    'throttle': function(target, timeout) {
        // Throttling means two things:

        // (1) For dependent observables, we throttle *evaluations* so that, no matter how fast its dependencies
        //     notify updates, the target doesn't re-evaluate (and hence doesn't notify) faster than a certain rate
        target['throttleEvaluation'] = timeout;

        // (2) For writable targets (observables, or writable dependent observables), we throttle *writes*
        //     so the target cannot change value synchronously or faster than a certain rate
        var writeTimeoutInstance = null;
        return ko.dependentObservable({
            'read': target,
            'write': function(value) {
                clearTimeout(writeTimeoutInstance);
                writeTimeoutInstance = setTimeout(function() {
                    target(value);
                }, timeout);
            }
        });
    },

    'notify': function(target, notifyWhen) {
        target["equalityComparer"] = notifyWhen == "always"
            ? function() { return false } // Treat all values as not equal
            : ko.observable["fn"]["equalityComparer"];
        return target;
    }
};

function applyExtenders(requestedExtenders) {
    var target = this;
    if (requestedExtenders) {
        for (var key in requestedExtenders) {
            var extenderHandler = ko.extenders[key];
            if (typeof extenderHandler == 'function') {
                target = extenderHandler(target, requestedExtenders[key]);
            }
        }
    }
    return target;
}

ko.exportSymbol('extenders', ko.extenders);

ko.subscription = function (target, callback, disposeCallback) {
    this.target = target;
    this.callback = callback;
    this.disposeCallback = disposeCallback;
    ko.exportProperty(this, 'dispose', this.dispose);
};
ko.subscription.prototype.dispose = function () {
    this.isDisposed = true;
    this.disposeCallback();
};

ko.subscribable = function () {
    this._subscriptions = {};

    ko.utils.extend(this, ko.subscribable['fn']);
    ko.exportProperty(this, 'subscribe', this.subscribe);
    ko.exportProperty(this, 'extend', this.extend);
    ko.exportProperty(this, 'getSubscriptionsCount', this.getSubscriptionsCount);
}

var defaultEvent = "change";

ko.subscribable['fn'] = {
    subscribe: function (callback, callbackTarget, event) {
        event = event || defaultEvent;
        var boundCallback = callbackTarget ? callback.bind(callbackTarget) : callback;

        var subscription = new ko.subscription(this, boundCallback, function () {
            ko.utils.arrayRemoveItem(this._subscriptions[event], subscription);
        }.bind(this));

        if (!this._subscriptions[event])
            this._subscriptions[event] = [];
        this._subscriptions[event].push(subscription);
        return subscription;
    },

    "notifySubscribers": function (valueToNotify, event) {
        event = event || defaultEvent;
        if (this._subscriptions[event]) {
            ko.utils.arrayForEach(this._subscriptions[event].slice(0), function (subscription) {
                // In case a subscription was disposed during the arrayForEach cycle, check
                // for isDisposed on each subscription before invoking its callback
                if (subscription && (subscription.isDisposed !== true))
                    subscription.callback(valueToNotify);
            });
        }
    },

    getSubscriptionsCount: function () {
        var total = 0;
        for (var eventName in this._subscriptions) {
            if (this._subscriptions.hasOwnProperty(eventName))
                total += this._subscriptions[eventName].length;
        }
        return total;
    },

    extend: applyExtenders
};


ko.isSubscribable = function (instance) {
    return typeof instance.subscribe == "function" && typeof instance["notifySubscribers"] == "function";
};

ko.exportSymbol('subscribable', ko.subscribable);
ko.exportSymbol('isSubscribable', ko.isSubscribable);

ko.dependencyDetection = (function () {
    var _frames = [];

    return {
        begin: function (callback) {
            _frames.push({ callback: callback, distinctDependencies:[] });
        },

        end: function () {
            _frames.pop();
        },

        registerDependency: function (subscribable) {
            if (!ko.isSubscribable(subscribable))
                throw new Error("Only subscribable things can act as dependencies");
            if (_frames.length > 0) {
                var topFrame = _frames[_frames.length - 1];
                if (ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(topFrame.distinctDependencies, subscribable) >= 0)
                    return;
                topFrame.distinctDependencies.push(subscribable);
                topFrame.callback(subscribable);
            }
        }
    };
})();
var primitiveTypes = { 'undefined':true, 'boolean':true, 'number':true, 'string':true };

ko.observable = function (initialValue) {
    var _latestValue = initialValue;

    function observable() {
        if (arguments.length > 0) {
            // Write

            // Ignore writes if the value hasn't changed
            if ((!observable['equalityComparer']) || !observable['equalityComparer'](_latestValue, arguments[0])) {
                observable.valueWillMutate();
                _latestValue = arguments[0];
                if (DEBUG) observable._latestValue = _latestValue;
                observable.valueHasMutated();
            }
            return this; // Permits chained assignments
        }
        else {
            // Read
            ko.dependencyDetection.registerDependency(observable); // The caller only needs to be notified of changes if they did a "read" operation
            return _latestValue;
        }
    }
    if (DEBUG) observable._latestValue = _latestValue;
    ko.subscribable.call(observable);
    observable.valueHasMutated = function () { observable["notifySubscribers"](_latestValue); }
    observable.valueWillMutate = function () { observable["notifySubscribers"](_latestValue, "beforeChange"); }
    ko.utils.extend(observable, ko.observable['fn']);

    ko.exportProperty(observable, "valueHasMutated", observable.valueHasMutated);
    ko.exportProperty(observable, "valueWillMutate", observable.valueWillMutate);

    return observable;
}

ko.observable['fn'] = {
    "equalityComparer": function valuesArePrimitiveAndEqual(a, b) {
        var oldValueIsPrimitive = (a === null) || (typeof(a) in primitiveTypes);
        return oldValueIsPrimitive ? (a === b) : false;
    }
};

var protoProperty = ko.observable.protoProperty = "__ko_proto__";
ko.observable['fn'][protoProperty] = ko.observable;

ko.hasPrototype = function(instance, prototype) {
    if ((instance === null) || (instance === undefined) || (instance[protoProperty] === undefined)) return false;
    if (instance[protoProperty] === prototype) return true;
    return ko.hasPrototype(instance[protoProperty], prototype); // Walk the prototype chain
};

ko.isObservable = function (instance) {
    return ko.hasPrototype(instance, ko.observable);
}
ko.isWriteableObservable = function (instance) {
    // Observable
    if ((typeof instance == "function") && instance[protoProperty] === ko.observable)
        return true;
    // Writeable dependent observable
    if ((typeof instance == "function") && (instance[protoProperty] === ko.dependentObservable) && (instance.hasWriteFunction))
        return true;
    // Anything else
    return false;
}


ko.exportSymbol('observable', ko.observable);
ko.exportSymbol('isObservable', ko.isObservable);
ko.exportSymbol('isWriteableObservable', ko.isWriteableObservable);
ko.observableArray = function (initialValues) {
    if (arguments.length == 0) {
        // Zero-parameter constructor initializes to empty array
        initialValues = [];
    }
    if ((initialValues !== null) && (initialValues !== undefined) && !('length' in initialValues))
        throw new Error("The argument passed when initializing an observable array must be an array, or null, or undefined.");

    var result = ko.observable(initialValues);
    ko.utils.extend(result, ko.observableArray['fn']);
    return result;
}

ko.observableArray['fn'] = {
    'remove': function (valueOrPredicate) {
        var underlyingArray = this();
        var removedValues = [];
        var predicate = typeof valueOrPredicate == "function" ? valueOrPredicate : function (value) { return value === valueOrPredicate; };
        for (var i = 0; i < underlyingArray.length; i++) {
            var value = underlyingArray[i];
            if (predicate(value)) {
                if (removedValues.length === 0) {
                    this.valueWillMutate();
                }
                removedValues.push(value);
                underlyingArray.splice(i, 1);
                i--;
            }
        }
        if (removedValues.length) {
            this.valueHasMutated();
        }
        return removedValues;
    },

    'removeAll': function (arrayOfValues) {
        // If you passed zero args, we remove everything
        if (arrayOfValues === undefined) {
            var underlyingArray = this();
            var allValues = underlyingArray.slice(0);
            this.valueWillMutate();
            underlyingArray.splice(0, underlyingArray.length);
            this.valueHasMutated();
            return allValues;
        }
        // If you passed an arg, we interpret it as an array of entries to remove
        if (!arrayOfValues)
            return [];
        return this['remove'](function (value) {
            return ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(arrayOfValues, value) >= 0;
        });
    },

    'destroy': function (valueOrPredicate) {
        var underlyingArray = this();
        var predicate = typeof valueOrPredicate == "function" ? valueOrPredicate : function (value) { return value === valueOrPredicate; };
        this.valueWillMutate();
        for (var i = underlyingArray.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
            var value = underlyingArray[i];
            if (predicate(value))
                underlyingArray[i]["_destroy"] = true;
        }
        this.valueHasMutated();
    },

    'destroyAll': function (arrayOfValues) {
        // If you passed zero args, we destroy everything
        if (arrayOfValues === undefined)
            return this['destroy'](function() { return true });

        // If you passed an arg, we interpret it as an array of entries to destroy
        if (!arrayOfValues)
            return [];
        return this['destroy'](function (value) {
            return ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(arrayOfValues, value) >= 0;
        });
    },

    'indexOf': function (item) {
        var underlyingArray = this();
        return ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(underlyingArray, item);
    },

    'replace': function(oldItem, newItem) {
        var index = this['indexOf'](oldItem);
        if (index >= 0) {
            this.valueWillMutate();
            this()[index] = newItem;
            this.valueHasMutated();
        }
    }
}

// Populate ko.observableArray.fn with read/write functions from native arrays
ko.utils.arrayForEach(["pop", "push", "reverse", "shift", "sort", "splice", "unshift"], function (methodName) {
    ko.observableArray['fn'][methodName] = function () {
        var underlyingArray = this();
        this.valueWillMutate();
        var methodCallResult = underlyingArray[methodName].apply(underlyingArray, arguments);
        this.valueHasMutated();
        return methodCallResult;
    };
});

// Populate ko.observableArray.fn with read-only functions from native arrays
ko.utils.arrayForEach(["slice"], function (methodName) {
    ko.observableArray['fn'][methodName] = function () {
        var underlyingArray = this();
        return underlyingArray[methodName].apply(underlyingArray, arguments);
    };
});

ko.exportSymbol('observableArray', ko.observableArray);
ko.dependentObservable = function (evaluatorFunctionOrOptions, evaluatorFunctionTarget, options) {
    var _latestValue,
        _hasBeenEvaluated = false,
        _isBeingEvaluated = false,
        readFunction = evaluatorFunctionOrOptions;

    if (readFunction && typeof readFunction == "object") {
        // Single-parameter syntax - everything is on this "options" param
        options = readFunction;
        readFunction = options["read"];
    } else {
        // Multi-parameter syntax - construct the options according to the params passed
        options = options || {};
        if (!readFunction)
            readFunction = options["read"];
    }
    // By here, "options" is always non-null
    if (typeof readFunction != "function")
        throw new Error("Pass a function that returns the value of the ko.computed");

    var writeFunction = options["write"];
    if (!evaluatorFunctionTarget)
        evaluatorFunctionTarget = options["owner"];

    var _subscriptionsToDependencies = [];
    function disposeAllSubscriptionsToDependencies() {
        ko.utils.arrayForEach(_subscriptionsToDependencies, function (subscription) {
            subscription.dispose();
        });
        _subscriptionsToDependencies = [];
    }
    var dispose = disposeAllSubscriptionsToDependencies;

    // Build "disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved" and "disposeWhenNodeIsRemovedCallback" option values
    // (Note: "disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved" option both proactively disposes as soon as the node is removed using ko.removeNode(),
    // plus adds a "disposeWhen" callback that, on each evaluation, disposes if the node was removed by some other means.)
    var disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved = (typeof options["disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved"] == "object") ? options["disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved"] : null;
    var disposeWhen = options["disposeWhen"] || function() { return false; };
    if (disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved) {
        dispose = function() {
            ko.utils.domNodeDisposal.removeDisposeCallback(disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved, arguments.callee);
            disposeAllSubscriptionsToDependencies();
        };
        ko.utils.domNodeDisposal.addDisposeCallback(disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved, dispose);
        var existingDisposeWhenFunction = disposeWhen;
        disposeWhen = function () {
            return !ko.utils.domNodeIsAttachedToDocument(disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved) || existingDisposeWhenFunction();
        }
    }

    var evaluationTimeoutInstance = null;
    function evaluatePossiblyAsync() {
        var throttleEvaluationTimeout = dependentObservable['throttleEvaluation'];
        if (throttleEvaluationTimeout && throttleEvaluationTimeout >= 0) {
            clearTimeout(evaluationTimeoutInstance);
            evaluationTimeoutInstance = setTimeout(evaluateImmediate, throttleEvaluationTimeout);
        } else
            evaluateImmediate();
    }

    function evaluateImmediate() {
        if (_isBeingEvaluated) {
            // If the evaluation of a ko.computed causes side effects, it's possible that it will trigger its own re-evaluation.
            // This is not desirable (it's hard for a developer to realise a chain of dependencies might cause this, and they almost
            // certainly didn't intend infinite re-evaluations). So, for predictability, we simply prevent ko.computeds from causing
            // their own re-evaluation. Further discussion at https://github.com/SteveSanderson/knockout/pull/387
            return;
        }

        // Don't dispose on first evaluation, because the "disposeWhen" callback might
        // e.g., dispose when the associated DOM element isn't in the doc, and it's not
        // going to be in the doc until *after* the first evaluation
        if (_hasBeenEvaluated && disposeWhen()) {
            dispose();
            return;
        }

        _isBeingEvaluated = true;
        try {
            // Initially, we assume that none of the subscriptions are still being used (i.e., all are candidates for disposal).
            // Then, during evaluation, we cross off any that are in fact still being used.
            var disposalCandidates = ko.utils.arrayMap(_subscriptionsToDependencies, function(item) {return item.target;});

            ko.dependencyDetection.begin(function(subscribable) {
                var inOld;
                if ((inOld = ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(disposalCandidates, subscribable)) >= 0)
                    disposalCandidates[inOld] = undefined; // Don't want to dispose this subscription, as it's still being used
                else
                    _subscriptionsToDependencies.push(subscribable.subscribe(evaluatePossiblyAsync)); // Brand new subscription - add it
            });

            var newValue = readFunction.call(evaluatorFunctionTarget);

            // For each subscription no longer being used, remove it from the active subscriptions list and dispose it
            for (var i = disposalCandidates.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
                if (disposalCandidates[i])
                    _subscriptionsToDependencies.splice(i, 1)[0].dispose();
            }
            _hasBeenEvaluated = true;

            dependentObservable["notifySubscribers"](_latestValue, "beforeChange");
            _latestValue = newValue;
            if (DEBUG) dependentObservable._latestValue = _latestValue;
        } finally {
            ko.dependencyDetection.end();
        }

        dependentObservable["notifySubscribers"](_latestValue);
        _isBeingEvaluated = false;

    }

    function dependentObservable() {
        if (arguments.length > 0) {
            set.apply(dependentObservable, arguments);
        } else {
            return get();
        }
    }

    function set() {
        if (typeof writeFunction === "function") {
            // Writing a value
            writeFunction.apply(evaluatorFunctionTarget, arguments);
        } else {
            throw new Error("Cannot write a value to a ko.computed unless you specify a 'write' option. If you wish to read the current value, don't pass any parameters.");
        }
    }

    function get() {
        // Reading the value
        if (!_hasBeenEvaluated)
            evaluateImmediate();
        ko.dependencyDetection.registerDependency(dependentObservable);
        return _latestValue;
    }

    dependentObservable.getDependenciesCount = function () { return _subscriptionsToDependencies.length; };
    dependentObservable.hasWriteFunction = typeof options["write"] === "function";
    dependentObservable.dispose = function () { dispose(); };

    ko.subscribable.call(dependentObservable);
    ko.utils.extend(dependentObservable, ko.dependentObservable['fn']);

    if (options['deferEvaluation'] !== true)
        evaluateImmediate();

    ko.exportProperty(dependentObservable, 'dispose', dependentObservable.dispose);
    ko.exportProperty(dependentObservable, 'getDependenciesCount', dependentObservable.getDependenciesCount);

    return dependentObservable;
};

ko.isComputed = function(instance) {
    return ko.hasPrototype(instance, ko.dependentObservable);
};

var protoProp = ko.observable.protoProperty; // == "__ko_proto__"
ko.dependentObservable[protoProp] = ko.observable;

ko.dependentObservable['fn'] = {};
ko.dependentObservable['fn'][protoProp] = ko.dependentObservable;

ko.exportSymbol('dependentObservable', ko.dependentObservable);
ko.exportSymbol('computed', ko.dependentObservable); // Make "ko.computed" an alias for "ko.dependentObservable"
ko.exportSymbol('isComputed', ko.isComputed);

(function() {
    var maxNestedObservableDepth = 10; // Escape the (unlikely) pathalogical case where an observable's current value is itself (or similar reference cycle)

    ko.toJS = function(rootObject) {
        if (arguments.length == 0)
            throw new Error("When calling ko.toJS, pass the object you want to convert.");

        // We just unwrap everything at every level in the object graph
        return mapJsObjectGraph(rootObject, function(valueToMap) {
            // Loop because an observable's value might in turn be another observable wrapper
            for (var i = 0; ko.isObservable(valueToMap) && (i < maxNestedObservableDepth); i++)
                valueToMap = valueToMap();
            return valueToMap;
        });
    };

    ko.toJSON = function(rootObject, replacer, space) {     // replacer and space are optional
        var plainJavaScriptObject = ko.toJS(rootObject);
        return ko.utils.stringifyJson(plainJavaScriptObject, replacer, space);
    };

    function mapJsObjectGraph(rootObject, mapInputCallback, visitedObjects) {
        visitedObjects = visitedObjects || new objectLookup();

        rootObject = mapInputCallback(rootObject);
        var canHaveProperties = (typeof rootObject == "object") && (rootObject !== null) && (rootObject !== undefined) && (!(rootObject instanceof Date));
        if (!canHaveProperties)
            return rootObject;

        var outputProperties = rootObject instanceof Array ? [] : {};
        visitedObjects.save(rootObject, outputProperties);

        visitPropertiesOrArrayEntries(rootObject, function(indexer) {
            var propertyValue = mapInputCallback(rootObject[indexer]);

            switch (typeof propertyValue) {
                case "boolean":
                case "number":
                case "string":
                case "function":
                    outputProperties[indexer] = propertyValue;
                    break;
                case "object":
                case "undefined":
                    var previouslyMappedValue = visitedObjects.get(propertyValue);
                    outputProperties[indexer] = (previouslyMappedValue !== undefined)
                        ? previouslyMappedValue
                        : mapJsObjectGraph(propertyValue, mapInputCallback, visitedObjects);
                    break;
            }
        });

        return outputProperties;
    }

    function visitPropertiesOrArrayEntries(rootObject, visitorCallback) {
        if (rootObject instanceof Array) {
            for (var i = 0; i < rootObject.length; i++)
                visitorCallback(i);

            // For arrays, also respect toJSON property for custom mappings (fixes #278)
            if (typeof rootObject['toJSON'] == 'function')
                visitorCallback('toJSON');
        } else {
            for (var propertyName in rootObject)
                visitorCallback(propertyName);
        }
    };

    function objectLookup() {
        var keys = [];
        var values = [];
        this.save = function(key, value) {
            var existingIndex = ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(keys, key);
            if (existingIndex >= 0)
                values[existingIndex] = value;
            else {
                keys.push(key);
                values.push(value);
            }
        };
        this.get = function(key) {
            var existingIndex = ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(keys, key);
            return (existingIndex >= 0) ? values[existingIndex] : undefined;
        };
    };
})();

ko.exportSymbol('toJS', ko.toJS);
ko.exportSymbol('toJSON', ko.toJSON);
(function () {
    var hasDomDataExpandoProperty = '__ko__hasDomDataOptionValue__';

    // Normally, SELECT elements and their OPTIONs can only take value of type 'string' (because the values
    // are stored on DOM attributes). ko.selectExtensions provides a way for SELECTs/OPTIONs to have values
    // that are arbitrary objects. This is very convenient when implementing things like cascading dropdowns.
    ko.selectExtensions = {
        readValue : function(element) {
            switch (ko.utils.tagNameLower(element)) {
                case 'option':
                    if (element[hasDomDataExpandoProperty] === true)
                        return ko.utils.domData.get(element, ko.bindingHandlers.options.optionValueDomDataKey);
                    return element.getAttribute("value");
                case 'select':
                    return element.selectedIndex >= 0 ? ko.selectExtensions.readValue(element.options[element.selectedIndex]) : undefined;
                default:
                    return element.value;
            }
        },

        writeValue: function(element, value) {
            switch (ko.utils.tagNameLower(element)) {
                case 'option':
                    switch(typeof value) {
                        case "string":
                            ko.utils.domData.set(element, ko.bindingHandlers.options.optionValueDomDataKey, undefined);
                            if (hasDomDataExpandoProperty in element) { // IE <= 8 throws errors if you delete non-existent properties from a DOM node
                                delete element[hasDomDataExpandoProperty];
                            }
                            element.value = value;
                            break;
                        default:
                            // Store arbitrary object using DomData
                            ko.utils.domData.set(element, ko.bindingHandlers.options.optionValueDomDataKey, value);
                            element[hasDomDataExpandoProperty] = true;

                            // Special treatment of numbers is just for backward compatibility. KO 1.2.1 wrote numerical values to element.value.
                            element.value = typeof value === "number" ? value : "";
                            break;
                    }
                    break;
                case 'select':
                    for (var i = element.options.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
                        if (ko.selectExtensions.readValue(element.options[i]) == value) {
                            element.selectedIndex = i;
                            break;
                        }
                    }
                    break;
                default:
                    if ((value === null) || (value === undefined))
                        value = "";
                    element.value = value;
                    break;
            }
        }
    };
})();

ko.exportSymbol('selectExtensions', ko.selectExtensions);
ko.exportSymbol('selectExtensions.readValue', ko.selectExtensions.readValue);
ko.exportSymbol('selectExtensions.writeValue', ko.selectExtensions.writeValue);

ko.jsonExpressionRewriting = (function () {
    var restoreCapturedTokensRegex = /\@ko_token_(\d+)\@/g;
    var javaScriptAssignmentTarget = /^[\_$a-z][\_$a-z0-9]*(\[.*?\])*(\.[\_$a-z][\_$a-z0-9]*(\[.*?\])*)*$/i;
    var javaScriptReservedWords = ["true", "false"];

    function restoreTokens(string, tokens) {
        var prevValue = null;
        while (string != prevValue) { // Keep restoring tokens until it no longer makes a difference (they may be nested)
            prevValue = string;
            string = string.replace(restoreCapturedTokensRegex, function (match, tokenIndex) {
                return tokens[tokenIndex];
            });
        }
        return string;
    }

    function isWriteableValue(expression) {
        if (ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(javaScriptReservedWords, ko.utils.stringTrim(expression).toLowerCase()) >= 0)
            return false;
        return expression.match(javaScriptAssignmentTarget) !== null;
    }

    function ensureQuoted(key) {
        var trimmedKey = ko.utils.stringTrim(key);
        switch (trimmedKey.length && trimmedKey.charAt(0)) {
            case "'":
            case '"':
                return key;
            default:
                return "'" + trimmedKey + "'";
        }
    }

    return {
        bindingRewriteValidators: [],

        parseObjectLiteral: function(objectLiteralString) {
            // A full tokeniser+lexer would add too much weight to this library, so here's a simple parser
            // that is sufficient just to split an object literal string into a set of top-level key-value pairs

            var str = ko.utils.stringTrim(objectLiteralString);
            if (str.length < 3)
                return [];
            if (str.charAt(0) === "{")// Ignore any braces surrounding the whole object literal
                str = str.substring(1, str.length - 1);

            // Pull out any string literals and regex literals
            var tokens = [];
            var tokenStart = null, tokenEndChar;
            for (var position = 0; position < str.length; position++) {
                var c = str.charAt(position);
                if (tokenStart === null) {
                    switch (c) {
                        case '"':
                        case "'":
                        case "/":
                            tokenStart = position;
                            tokenEndChar = c;
                            break;
                    }
                } else if ((c == tokenEndChar) && (str.charAt(position - 1) !== "\\")) {
                    var token = str.substring(tokenStart, position + 1);
                    tokens.push(token);
                    var replacement = "@ko_token_" + (tokens.length - 1) + "@";
                    str = str.substring(0, tokenStart) + replacement + str.substring(position + 1);
                    position -= (token.length - replacement.length);
                    tokenStart = null;
                }
            }

            // Next pull out balanced paren, brace, and bracket blocks
            tokenStart = null;
            tokenEndChar = null;
            var tokenDepth = 0, tokenStartChar = null;
            for (var position = 0; position < str.length; position++) {
                var c = str.charAt(position);
                if (tokenStart === null) {
                    switch (c) {
                        case "{": tokenStart = position; tokenStartChar = c;
                                  tokenEndChar = "}";
                                  break;
                        case "(": tokenStart = position; tokenStartChar = c;
                                  tokenEndChar = ")";
                                  break;
                        case "[": tokenStart = position; tokenStartChar = c;
                                  tokenEndChar = "]";
                                  break;
                    }
                }

                if (c === tokenStartChar)
                    tokenDepth++;
                else if (c === tokenEndChar) {
                    tokenDepth--;
                    if (tokenDepth === 0) {
                        var token = str.substring(tokenStart, position + 1);
                        tokens.push(token);
                        var replacement = "@ko_token_" + (tokens.length - 1) + "@";
                        str = str.substring(0, tokenStart) + replacement + str.substring(position + 1);
                        position -= (token.length - replacement.length);
                        tokenStart = null;
                    }
                }
            }

            // Now we can safely split on commas to get the key/value pairs
            var result = [];
            var keyValuePairs = str.split(",");
            for (var i = 0, j = keyValuePairs.length; i < j; i++) {
                var pair = keyValuePairs[i];
                var colonPos = pair.indexOf(":");
                if ((colonPos > 0) && (colonPos < pair.length - 1)) {
                    var key = pair.substring(0, colonPos);
                    var value = pair.substring(colonPos + 1);
                    result.push({ 'key': restoreTokens(key, tokens), 'value': restoreTokens(value, tokens) });
                } else {
                    result.push({ 'unknown': restoreTokens(pair, tokens) });
                }
            }
            return result;
        },

        insertPropertyAccessorsIntoJson: function (objectLiteralStringOrKeyValueArray) {
            var keyValueArray = typeof objectLiteralStringOrKeyValueArray === "string"
                ? ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.parseObjectLiteral(objectLiteralStringOrKeyValueArray)
                : objectLiteralStringOrKeyValueArray;
            var resultStrings = [], propertyAccessorResultStrings = [];

            var keyValueEntry;
            for (var i = 0; keyValueEntry = keyValueArray[i]; i++) {
                if (resultStrings.length > 0)
                    resultStrings.push(",");

                if (keyValueEntry['key']) {
                    var quotedKey = ensureQuoted(keyValueEntry['key']), val = keyValueEntry['value'];
                    resultStrings.push(quotedKey);
                    resultStrings.push(":");
                    resultStrings.push(val);

                    if (isWriteableValue(ko.utils.stringTrim(val))) {
                        if (propertyAccessorResultStrings.length > 0)
                            propertyAccessorResultStrings.push(", ");
                        propertyAccessorResultStrings.push(quotedKey + " : function(__ko_value) { " + val + " = __ko_value; }");
                    }
                } else if (keyValueEntry['unknown']) {
                    resultStrings.push(keyValueEntry['unknown']);
                }
            }

            var combinedResult = resultStrings.join("");
            if (propertyAccessorResultStrings.length > 0) {
                var allPropertyAccessors = propertyAccessorResultStrings.join("");
                combinedResult = combinedResult + ", '_ko_property_writers' : { " + allPropertyAccessors + " } ";
            }

            return combinedResult;
        },

        keyValueArrayContainsKey: function(keyValueArray, key) {
            for (var i = 0; i < keyValueArray.length; i++)
                if (ko.utils.stringTrim(keyValueArray[i]['key']) == key)
                    return true;
            return false;
        },

        // Internal, private KO utility for updating model properties from within bindings
        // property:            If the property being updated is (or might be) an observable, pass it here
        //                      If it turns out to be a writable observable, it will be written to directly
        // allBindingsAccessor: All bindings in the current execution context.
        //                      This will be searched for a '_ko_property_writers' property in case you're writing to a non-observable
        // key:                 The key identifying the property to be written. Example: for { hasFocus: myValue }, write to 'myValue' by specifying the key 'hasFocus'
        // value:               The value to be written
        // checkIfDifferent:    If true, and if the property being written is a writable observable, the value will only be written if
        //                      it is !== existing value on that writable observable
        writeValueToProperty: function(property, allBindingsAccessor, key, value, checkIfDifferent) {
            if (!property || !ko.isWriteableObservable(property)) {
                var propWriters = allBindingsAccessor()['_ko_property_writers'];
                if (propWriters && propWriters[key])
                    propWriters[key](value);
            } else if (!checkIfDifferent || property() !== value) {
                property(value);
            }
        }
    };
})();

ko.exportSymbol('jsonExpressionRewriting', ko.jsonExpressionRewriting);
ko.exportSymbol('jsonExpressionRewriting.bindingRewriteValidators', ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.bindingRewriteValidators);
ko.exportSymbol('jsonExpressionRewriting.parseObjectLiteral', ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.parseObjectLiteral);
ko.exportSymbol('jsonExpressionRewriting.insertPropertyAccessorsIntoJson', ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.insertPropertyAccessorsIntoJson);
(function() {
    // "Virtual elements" is an abstraction on top of the usual DOM API which understands the notion that comment nodes
    // may be used to represent hierarchy (in addition to the DOM's natural hierarchy).
    // If you call the DOM-manipulating functions on ko.virtualElements, you will be able to read and write the state
    // of that virtual hierarchy
    //
    // The point of all this is to support containerless templates (e.g., <!-- ko foreach:someCollection -->blah<!-- /ko -->)
    // without having to scatter special cases all over the binding and templating code.

    // IE 9 cannot reliably read the "nodeValue" property of a comment node (see https://github.com/SteveSanderson/knockout/issues/186)
    // but it does give them a nonstandard alternative property called "text" that it can read reliably. Other browsers don't have that property.
    // So, use node.text where available, and node.nodeValue elsewhere
    var commentNodesHaveTextProperty = document.createComment("test").text === "<!--test-->";

    var startCommentRegex = commentNodesHaveTextProperty ? /^<!--\s*ko\s+(.*\:.*)\s*-->$/ : /^\s*ko\s+(.*\:.*)\s*$/;
    var endCommentRegex =   commentNodesHaveTextProperty ? /^<!--\s*\/ko\s*-->$/ : /^\s*\/ko\s*$/;
    var htmlTagsWithOptionallyClosingChildren = { 'ul': true, 'ol': true };

    function isStartComment(node) {
        return (node.nodeType == 8) && (commentNodesHaveTextProperty ? node.text : node.nodeValue).match(startCommentRegex);
    }

    function isEndComment(node) {
        return (node.nodeType == 8) && (commentNodesHaveTextProperty ? node.text : node.nodeValue).match(endCommentRegex);
    }

    function getVirtualChildren(startComment, allowUnbalanced) {
        var currentNode = startComment;
        var depth = 1;
        var children = [];
        while (currentNode = currentNode.nextSibling) {
            if (isEndComment(currentNode)) {
                depth--;
                if (depth === 0)
                    return children;
            }

            children.push(currentNode);

            if (isStartComment(currentNode))
                depth++;
        }
        if (!allowUnbalanced)
            throw new Error("Cannot find closing comment tag to match: " + startComment.nodeValue);
        return null;
    }

    function getMatchingEndComment(startComment, allowUnbalanced) {
        var allVirtualChildren = getVirtualChildren(startComment, allowUnbalanced);
        if (allVirtualChildren) {
            if (allVirtualChildren.length > 0)
                return allVirtualChildren[allVirtualChildren.length - 1].nextSibling;
            return startComment.nextSibling;
        } else
            return null; // Must have no matching end comment, and allowUnbalanced is true
    }

    function getUnbalancedChildTags(node) {
        // e.g., from <div>OK</div><!-- ko blah --><span>Another</span>, returns: <!-- ko blah --><span>Another</span>
        //       from <div>OK</div><!-- /ko --><!-- /ko -->,             returns: <!-- /ko --><!-- /ko -->
        var childNode = node.firstChild, captureRemaining = null;
        if (childNode) {
            do {
                if (captureRemaining)                   // We already hit an unbalanced node and are now just scooping up all subsequent nodes
                    captureRemaining.push(childNode);
                else if (isStartComment(childNode)) {
                    var matchingEndComment = getMatchingEndComment(childNode, /* allowUnbalanced: */ true);
                    if (matchingEndComment)             // It's a balanced tag, so skip immediately to the end of this virtual set
                        childNode = matchingEndComment;
                    else
                        captureRemaining = [childNode]; // It's unbalanced, so start capturing from this point
                } else if (isEndComment(childNode)) {
                    captureRemaining = [childNode];     // It's unbalanced (if it wasn't, we'd have skipped over it already), so start capturing
                }
            } while (childNode = childNode.nextSibling);
        }
        return captureRemaining;
    }

    ko.virtualElements = {
        allowedBindings: {},

        childNodes: function(node) {
            return isStartComment(node) ? getVirtualChildren(node) : node.childNodes;
        },

        emptyNode: function(node) {
            if (!isStartComment(node))
                ko.utils.emptyDomNode(node);
            else {
                var virtualChildren = ko.virtualElements.childNodes(node);
                for (var i = 0, j = virtualChildren.length; i < j; i++)
                    ko.removeNode(virtualChildren[i]);
            }
        },

        setDomNodeChildren: function(node, childNodes) {
            if (!isStartComment(node))
                ko.utils.setDomNodeChildren(node, childNodes);
            else {
                ko.virtualElements.emptyNode(node);
                var endCommentNode = node.nextSibling; // Must be the next sibling, as we just emptied the children
                for (var i = 0, j = childNodes.length; i < j; i++)
                    endCommentNode.parentNode.insertBefore(childNodes[i], endCommentNode);
            }
        },

        prepend: function(containerNode, nodeToPrepend) {
            if (!isStartComment(containerNode)) {
                if (containerNode.firstChild)
                    containerNode.insertBefore(nodeToPrepend, containerNode.firstChild);
                else
                    containerNode.appendChild(nodeToPrepend);
            } else {
                // Start comments must always have a parent and at least one following sibling (the end comment)
                containerNode.parentNode.insertBefore(nodeToPrepend, containerNode.nextSibling);
            }
        },

        insertAfter: function(containerNode, nodeToInsert, insertAfterNode) {
            if (!isStartComment(containerNode)) {
                // Insert after insertion point
                if (insertAfterNode.nextSibling)
                    containerNode.insertBefore(nodeToInsert, insertAfterNode.nextSibling);
                else
                    containerNode.appendChild(nodeToInsert);
            } else {
                // Children of start comments must always have a parent and at least one following sibling (the end comment)
                containerNode.parentNode.insertBefore(nodeToInsert, insertAfterNode.nextSibling);
            }
        },

        firstChild: function(node) {
            if (!isStartComment(node))
                return node.firstChild;
            if (!node.nextSibling || isEndComment(node.nextSibling))
                return null;
            return node.nextSibling;
        },

        nextSibling: function(node) {
            if (isStartComment(node))
                node = getMatchingEndComment(node);
            if (node.nextSibling && isEndComment(node.nextSibling))
                return null;
            return node.nextSibling;
        },

        virtualNodeBindingValue: function(node) {
            var regexMatch = isStartComment(node);
            return regexMatch ? regexMatch[1] : null;
        },

        normaliseVirtualElementDomStructure: function(elementVerified) {
            // Workaround for https://github.com/SteveSanderson/knockout/issues/155
            // (IE <= 8 or IE 9 quirks mode parses your HTML weirdly, treating closing </li> tags as if they don't exist, thereby moving comment nodes
            // that are direct descendants of <ul> into the preceding <li>)
            if (!htmlTagsWithOptionallyClosingChildren[ko.utils.tagNameLower(elementVerified)])
                return;

            // Scan immediate children to see if they contain unbalanced comment tags. If they do, those comment tags
            // must be intended to appear *after* that child, so move them there.
            var childNode = elementVerified.firstChild;
            if (childNode) {
                do {
                    if (childNode.nodeType === 1) {
                        var unbalancedTags = getUnbalancedChildTags(childNode);
                        if (unbalancedTags) {
                            // Fix up the DOM by moving the unbalanced tags to where they most likely were intended to be placed - *after* the child
                            var nodeToInsertBefore = childNode.nextSibling;
                            for (var i = 0; i < unbalancedTags.length; i++) {
                                if (nodeToInsertBefore)
                                    elementVerified.insertBefore(unbalancedTags[i], nodeToInsertBefore);
                                else
                                    elementVerified.appendChild(unbalancedTags[i]);
                            }
                        }
                    }
                } while (childNode = childNode.nextSibling);
            }
        }
    };
})();
ko.exportSymbol('virtualElements', ko.virtualElements);
ko.exportSymbol('virtualElements.allowedBindings', ko.virtualElements.allowedBindings);
ko.exportSymbol('virtualElements.emptyNode', ko.virtualElements.emptyNode);
//ko.exportSymbol('virtualElements.firstChild', ko.virtualElements.firstChild);     // firstChild is not minified
ko.exportSymbol('virtualElements.insertAfter', ko.virtualElements.insertAfter);
//ko.exportSymbol('virtualElements.nextSibling', ko.virtualElements.nextSibling);   // nextSibling is not minified
ko.exportSymbol('virtualElements.prepend', ko.virtualElements.prepend);
ko.exportSymbol('virtualElements.setDomNodeChildren', ko.virtualElements.setDomNodeChildren);
(function() {
    var defaultBindingAttributeName = "data-bind";

    ko.bindingProvider = function() {
        this.bindingCache = {};
    };

    ko.utils.extend(ko.bindingProvider.prototype, {
        'nodeHasBindings': function(node) {
            switch (node.nodeType) {
                case 1: return node.getAttribute(defaultBindingAttributeName) != null;   // Element
                case 8: return ko.virtualElements.virtualNodeBindingValue(node) != null; // Comment node
                default: return false;
            }
        },

        'getBindings': function(node, bindingContext) {
            var bindingsString = this['getBindingsString'](node, bindingContext);
            return bindingsString ? this['parseBindingsString'](bindingsString, bindingContext) : null;
        },

        // The following function is only used internally by this default provider.
        // It's not part of the interface definition for a general binding provider.
        'getBindingsString': function(node, bindingContext) {
            switch (node.nodeType) {
                case 1: return node.getAttribute(defaultBindingAttributeName);   // Element
                case 8: return ko.virtualElements.virtualNodeBindingValue(node); // Comment node
                default: return null;
            }
        },

        // The following function is only used internally by this default provider.
        // It's not part of the interface definition for a general binding provider.
        'parseBindingsString': function(bindingsString, bindingContext) {
            try {
                var viewModel = bindingContext['$data'],
                    scopes = (typeof viewModel == 'object' && viewModel != null) ? [viewModel, bindingContext] : [bindingContext],
                    bindingFunction = createBindingsStringEvaluatorViaCache(bindingsString, scopes.length, this.bindingCache);
                return bindingFunction(scopes);
            } catch (ex) {
                throw new Error("Unable to parse bindings.\nMessage: " + ex + ";\nBindings value: " + bindingsString);
            }
        }
    });

    ko.bindingProvider['instance'] = new ko.bindingProvider();

    function createBindingsStringEvaluatorViaCache(bindingsString, scopesCount, cache) {
        var cacheKey = scopesCount + '_' + bindingsString;
        return cache[cacheKey]
            || (cache[cacheKey] = createBindingsStringEvaluator(bindingsString, scopesCount));
    }

    function createBindingsStringEvaluator(bindingsString, scopesCount) {
        var rewrittenBindings = " { " + ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.insertPropertyAccessorsIntoJson(bindingsString) + " } ";
        return ko.utils.buildEvalWithinScopeFunction(rewrittenBindings, scopesCount);
    }
})();

ko.exportSymbol('bindingProvider', ko.bindingProvider);
(function () {
    ko.bindingHandlers = {};

    ko.bindingContext = function(dataItem, parentBindingContext) {
        if (parentBindingContext) {
            ko.utils.extend(this, parentBindingContext); // Inherit $root and any custom properties
            this['$parentContext'] = parentBindingContext;
            this['$parent'] = parentBindingContext['$data'];
            this['$parents'] = (parentBindingContext['$parents'] || []).slice(0);
            this['$parents'].unshift(this['$parent']);
        } else {
            this['$parents'] = [];
            this['$root'] = dataItem;
        }
        this['$data'] = dataItem;
    }
    ko.bindingContext.prototype['createChildContext'] = function (dataItem) {
        return new ko.bindingContext(dataItem, this);
    };
    ko.bindingContext.prototype['extend'] = function(properties) {
        var clone = ko.utils.extend(new ko.bindingContext(), this);
        return ko.utils.extend(clone, properties);
    };

    function validateThatBindingIsAllowedForVirtualElements(bindingName) {
        var validator = ko.virtualElements.allowedBindings[bindingName];
        if (!validator)
            throw new Error("The binding '" + bindingName + "' cannot be used with virtual elements")
    }

    function applyBindingsToDescendantsInternal (viewModel, elementOrVirtualElement, bindingContextsMayDifferFromDomParentElement) {
        var currentChild, nextInQueue = ko.virtualElements.firstChild(elementOrVirtualElement);
        while (currentChild = nextInQueue) {
            // Keep a record of the next child *before* applying bindings, in case the binding removes the current child from its position
            nextInQueue = ko.virtualElements.nextSibling(currentChild);
            applyBindingsToNodeAndDescendantsInternal(viewModel, currentChild, bindingContextsMayDifferFromDomParentElement);
        }
    }

    function applyBindingsToNodeAndDescendantsInternal (viewModel, nodeVerified, bindingContextMayDifferFromDomParentElement) {
        var shouldBindDescendants = true;

        // Perf optimisation: Apply bindings only if...
        // (1) We need to store the binding context on this node (because it may differ from the DOM parent node's binding context)
        //     Note that we can't store binding contexts on non-elements (e.g., text nodes), as IE doesn't allow expando properties for those
        // (2) It might have bindings (e.g., it has a data-bind attribute, or it's a marker for a containerless template)
        var isElement = (nodeVerified.nodeType === 1);
        if (isElement) // Workaround IE <= 8 HTML parsing weirdness
            ko.virtualElements.normaliseVirtualElementDomStructure(nodeVerified);

        var shouldApplyBindings = (isElement && bindingContextMayDifferFromDomParentElement)             // Case (1)
                               || ko.bindingProvider['instance']['nodeHasBindings'](nodeVerified);       // Case (2)
        if (shouldApplyBindings)
            shouldBindDescendants = applyBindingsToNodeInternal(nodeVerified, null, viewModel, bindingContextMayDifferFromDomParentElement).shouldBindDescendants;

        if (shouldBindDescendants) {
            // We're recursing automatically into (real or virtual) child nodes without changing binding contexts. So,
            //  * For children of a *real* element, the binding context is certainly the same as on their DOM .parentNode,
            //    hence bindingContextsMayDifferFromDomParentElement is false
            //  * For children of a *virtual* element, we can't be sure. Evaluating .parentNode on those children may
            //    skip over any number of intermediate virtual elements, any of which might define a custom binding context,
            //    hence bindingContextsMayDifferFromDomParentElement is true
            applyBindingsToDescendantsInternal(viewModel, nodeVerified, /* bindingContextsMayDifferFromDomParentElement: */ !isElement);
        }
    }

    function applyBindingsToNodeInternal (node, bindings, viewModelOrBindingContext, bindingContextMayDifferFromDomParentElement) {
        // Need to be sure that inits are only run once, and updates never run until all the inits have been run
        var initPhase = 0; // 0 = before all inits, 1 = during inits, 2 = after all inits

        // Each time the dependentObservable is evaluated (after data changes),
        // the binding attribute is reparsed so that it can pick out the correct
        // model properties in the context of the changed data.
        // DOM event callbacks need to be able to access this changed data,
        // so we need a single parsedBindings variable (shared by all callbacks
        // associated with this node's bindings) that all the closures can access.
        var parsedBindings;
        function makeValueAccessor(bindingKey) {
            return function () { return parsedBindings[bindingKey] }
        }
        function parsedBindingsAccessor() {
            return parsedBindings;
        }

        var bindingHandlerThatControlsDescendantBindings;
        ko.dependentObservable(
            function () {
                // Ensure we have a nonnull binding context to work with
                var bindingContextInstance = viewModelOrBindingContext && (viewModelOrBindingContext instanceof ko.bindingContext)
                    ? viewModelOrBindingContext
                    : new ko.bindingContext(ko.utils.unwrapObservable(viewModelOrBindingContext));
                var viewModel = bindingContextInstance['$data'];

                // Optimization: Don't store the binding context on this node if it's definitely the same as on node.parentNode, because
                // we can easily recover it just by scanning up the node's ancestors in the DOM
                // (note: here, parent node means "real DOM parent" not "virtual parent", as there's no O(1) way to find the virtual parent)
                if (bindingContextMayDifferFromDomParentElement)
                    ko.storedBindingContextForNode(node, bindingContextInstance);

                // Use evaluatedBindings if given, otherwise fall back on asking the bindings provider to give us some bindings
                var evaluatedBindings = (typeof bindings == "function") ? bindings() : bindings;
                parsedBindings = evaluatedBindings || ko.bindingProvider['instance']['getBindings'](node, bindingContextInstance);

                if (parsedBindings) {
                    // First run all the inits, so bindings can register for notification on changes
                    if (initPhase === 0) {
                        initPhase = 1;
                        for (var bindingKey in parsedBindings) {
                            var binding = ko.bindingHandlers[bindingKey];
                            if (binding && node.nodeType === 8)
                                validateThatBindingIsAllowedForVirtualElements(bindingKey);

                            if (binding && typeof binding["init"] == "function") {
                                var handlerInitFn = binding["init"];
                                var initResult = handlerInitFn(node, makeValueAccessor(bindingKey), parsedBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContextInstance);

                                // If this binding handler claims to control descendant bindings, make a note of this
                                if (initResult && initResult['controlsDescendantBindings']) {
                                    if (bindingHandlerThatControlsDescendantBindings !== undefined)
                                        throw new Error("Multiple bindings (" + bindingHandlerThatControlsDescendantBindings + " and " + bindingKey + ") are trying to control descendant bindings of the same element. You cannot use these bindings together on the same element.");
                                    bindingHandlerThatControlsDescendantBindings = bindingKey;
                                }
                            }
                        }
                        initPhase = 2;
                    }

                    // ... then run all the updates, which might trigger changes even on the first evaluation
                    if (initPhase === 2) {
                        for (var bindingKey in parsedBindings) {
                            var binding = ko.bindingHandlers[bindingKey];
                            if (binding && typeof binding["update"] == "function") {
                                var handlerUpdateFn = binding["update"];
                                handlerUpdateFn(node, makeValueAccessor(bindingKey), parsedBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContextInstance);
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            },
            null,
            { 'disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved' : node }
        );

        return {
            shouldBindDescendants: bindingHandlerThatControlsDescendantBindings === undefined
        };
    };

    var storedBindingContextDomDataKey = "__ko_bindingContext__";
    ko.storedBindingContextForNode = function (node, bindingContext) {
        if (arguments.length == 2)
            ko.utils.domData.set(node, storedBindingContextDomDataKey, bindingContext);
        else
            return ko.utils.domData.get(node, storedBindingContextDomDataKey);
    }

    ko.applyBindingsToNode = function (node, bindings, viewModel) {
        if (node.nodeType === 1) // If it's an element, workaround IE <= 8 HTML parsing weirdness
            ko.virtualElements.normaliseVirtualElementDomStructure(node);
        return applyBindingsToNodeInternal(node, bindings, viewModel, true);
    };

    ko.applyBindingsToDescendants = function(viewModel, rootNode) {
        if (rootNode.nodeType === 1 || rootNode.nodeType === 8)
            applyBindingsToDescendantsInternal(viewModel, rootNode, true);
    };

    ko.applyBindings = function (viewModel, rootNode) {
        if (rootNode && (rootNode.nodeType !== 1) && (rootNode.nodeType !== 8))
            throw new Error("ko.applyBindings: first parameter should be your view model; second parameter should be a DOM node");
        rootNode = rootNode || window.document.body; // Make "rootNode" parameter optional

        applyBindingsToNodeAndDescendantsInternal(viewModel, rootNode, true);
    };

    // Retrieving binding context from arbitrary nodes
    ko.contextFor = function(node) {
        // We can only do something meaningful for elements and comment nodes (in particular, not text nodes, as IE can't store domdata for them)
        switch (node.nodeType) {
            case 1:
            case 8:
                var context = ko.storedBindingContextForNode(node);
                if (context) return context;
                if (node.parentNode) return ko.contextFor(node.parentNode);
                break;
        }
        return undefined;
    };
    ko.dataFor = function(node) {
        var context = ko.contextFor(node);
        return context ? context['$data'] : undefined;
    };

    ko.exportSymbol('bindingHandlers', ko.bindingHandlers);
    ko.exportSymbol('applyBindings', ko.applyBindings);
    ko.exportSymbol('applyBindingsToDescendants', ko.applyBindingsToDescendants);
    ko.exportSymbol('applyBindingsToNode', ko.applyBindingsToNode);
    ko.exportSymbol('contextFor', ko.contextFor);
    ko.exportSymbol('dataFor', ko.dataFor);
})();
// For certain common events (currently just 'click'), allow a simplified data-binding syntax
// e.g. click:handler instead of the usual full-length event:{click:handler}
var eventHandlersWithShortcuts = ['click'];
ko.utils.arrayForEach(eventHandlersWithShortcuts, function(eventName) {
    ko.bindingHandlers[eventName] = {
        'init': function(element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel) {
            var newValueAccessor = function () {
                var result = {};
                result[eventName] = valueAccessor();
                return result;
            };
            return ko.bindingHandlers['event']['init'].call(this, element, newValueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel);
        }
    }
});


ko.bindingHandlers['event'] = {
    'init' : function (element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel) {
        var eventsToHandle = valueAccessor() || {};
        for(var eventNameOutsideClosure in eventsToHandle) {
            (function() {
                var eventName = eventNameOutsideClosure; // Separate variable to be captured by event handler closure
                if (typeof eventName == "string") {
                    ko.utils.registerEventHandler(element, eventName, function (event) {
                        var handlerReturnValue;
                        var handlerFunction = valueAccessor()[eventName];
                        if (!handlerFunction)
                            return;
                        var allBindings = allBindingsAccessor();

                        try {
                            // Take all the event args, and prefix with the viewmodel
                            var argsForHandler = ko.utils.makeArray(arguments);
                            argsForHandler.unshift(viewModel);
                            handlerReturnValue = handlerFunction.apply(viewModel, argsForHandler);
                        } finally {
                            if (handlerReturnValue !== true) { // Normally we want to prevent default action. Developer can override this be explicitly returning true.
                                if (event.preventDefault)
                                    event.preventDefault();
                                else
                                    event.returnValue = false;
                            }
                        }

                        var bubble = allBindings[eventName + 'Bubble'] !== false;
                        if (!bubble) {
                            event.cancelBubble = true;
                            if (event.stopPropagation)
                                event.stopPropagation();
                        }
                    });
                }
            })();
        }
    }
};

ko.bindingHandlers['submit'] = {
    'init': function (element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel) {
        if (typeof valueAccessor() != "function")
            throw new Error("The value for a submit binding must be a function");
        ko.utils.registerEventHandler(element, "submit", function (event) {
            var handlerReturnValue;
            var value = valueAccessor();
            try { handlerReturnValue = value.call(viewModel, element); }
            finally {
                if (handlerReturnValue !== true) { // Normally we want to prevent default action. Developer can override this be explicitly returning true.
                    if (event.preventDefault)
                        event.preventDefault();
                    else
                        event.returnValue = false;
                }
            }
        });
    }
};

ko.bindingHandlers['visible'] = {
    'update': function (element, valueAccessor) {
        var value = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor());
        var isCurrentlyVisible = !(element.style.display == "none");
        if (value && !isCurrentlyVisible)
            element.style.display = "";
        else if ((!value) && isCurrentlyVisible)
            element.style.display = "none";
    }
}

ko.bindingHandlers['enable'] = {
    'update': function (element, valueAccessor) {
        var value = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor());
        if (value && element.disabled)
            element.removeAttribute("disabled");
        else if ((!value) && (!element.disabled))
            element.disabled = true;
    }
};

ko.bindingHandlers['disable'] = {
    'update': function (element, valueAccessor) {
        ko.bindingHandlers['enable']['update'](element, function() { return !ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor()) });
    }
};

function ensureDropdownSelectionIsConsistentWithModelValue(element, modelValue, preferModelValue) {
    if (preferModelValue) {
        if (modelValue !== ko.selectExtensions.readValue(element))
            ko.selectExtensions.writeValue(element, modelValue);
    }

    // No matter which direction we're syncing in, we want the end result to be equality between dropdown value and model value.
    // If they aren't equal, either we prefer the dropdown value, or the model value couldn't be represented, so either way,
    // change the model value to match the dropdown.
    if (modelValue !== ko.selectExtensions.readValue(element))
        ko.utils.triggerEvent(element, "change");
};

ko.bindingHandlers['value'] = {
    'init': function (element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor) {
        // Always catch "change" event; possibly other events too if asked
        var eventsToCatch = ["change"];
        var requestedEventsToCatch = allBindingsAccessor()["valueUpdate"];
        if (requestedEventsToCatch) {
            if (typeof requestedEventsToCatch == "string") // Allow both individual event names, and arrays of event names
                requestedEventsToCatch = [requestedEventsToCatch];
            ko.utils.arrayPushAll(eventsToCatch, requestedEventsToCatch);
            eventsToCatch = ko.utils.arrayGetDistinctValues(eventsToCatch);
        }

        var valueUpdateHandler = function() {
            var modelValue = valueAccessor();
            var elementValue = ko.selectExtensions.readValue(element);
            ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.writeValueToProperty(modelValue, allBindingsAccessor, 'value', elementValue, /* checkIfDifferent: */ true);
        }

        // Workaround for https://github.com/SteveSanderson/knockout/issues/122
        // IE doesn't fire "change" events on textboxes if the user selects a value from its autocomplete list
        var ieAutoCompleteHackNeeded = ko.utils.ieVersion && element.tagName.toLowerCase() == "input" && element.type == "text"
                                       && element.autocomplete != "off" && (!element.form || element.form.autocomplete != "off");
        if (ieAutoCompleteHackNeeded && ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(eventsToCatch, "propertychange") == -1) {
            var propertyChangedFired = false;
            ko.utils.registerEventHandler(element, "propertychange", function () { propertyChangedFired = true });
            ko.utils.registerEventHandler(element, "blur", function() {
                if (propertyChangedFired) {
                    propertyChangedFired = false;
                    valueUpdateHandler();
                }
            });
        }

        ko.utils.arrayForEach(eventsToCatch, function(eventName) {
            // The syntax "after<eventname>" means "run the handler asynchronously after the event"
            // This is useful, for example, to catch "keydown" events after the browser has updated the control
            // (otherwise, ko.selectExtensions.readValue(this) will receive the control's value *before* the key event)
            var handler = valueUpdateHandler;
            if (ko.utils.stringStartsWith(eventName, "after")) {
                handler = function() { setTimeout(valueUpdateHandler, 0) };
                eventName = eventName.substring("after".length);
            }
            ko.utils.registerEventHandler(element, eventName, handler);
        });
    },
    'update': function (element, valueAccessor) {
        var valueIsSelectOption = ko.utils.tagNameLower(element) === "select";
        var newValue = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor());
        var elementValue = ko.selectExtensions.readValue(element);
        var valueHasChanged = (newValue != elementValue);

        // JavaScript's 0 == "" behavious is unfortunate here as it prevents writing 0 to an empty text box (loose equality suggests the values are the same).
        // We don't want to do a strict equality comparison as that is more confusing for developers in certain cases, so we specifically special case 0 != "" here.
        if ((newValue === 0) && (elementValue !== 0) && (elementValue !== "0"))
            valueHasChanged = true;

        if (valueHasChanged) {
            var applyValueAction = function () { ko.selectExtensions.writeValue(element, newValue); };
            applyValueAction();

            // Workaround for IE6 bug: It won't reliably apply values to SELECT nodes during the same execution thread
            // right after you've changed the set of OPTION nodes on it. So for that node type, we'll schedule a second thread
            // to apply the value as well.
            var alsoApplyAsynchronously = valueIsSelectOption;
            if (alsoApplyAsynchronously)
                setTimeout(applyValueAction, 0);
        }

        // If you try to set a model value that can't be represented in an already-populated dropdown, reject that change,
        // because you're not allowed to have a model value that disagrees with a visible UI selection.
        if (valueIsSelectOption && (element.length > 0))
            ensureDropdownSelectionIsConsistentWithModelValue(element, newValue, /* preferModelValue */ false);
    }
};

ko.bindingHandlers['options'] = {
    'update': function (element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor) {
        if (ko.utils.tagNameLower(element) !== "select")
            throw new Error("options binding applies only to SELECT elements");

        var selectWasPreviouslyEmpty = element.length == 0;
        var previousSelectedValues = ko.utils.arrayMap(ko.utils.arrayFilter(element.childNodes, function (node) {
            return node.tagName && (ko.utils.tagNameLower(node) === "option") && node.selected;
        }), function (node) {
            return ko.selectExtensions.readValue(node) || node.innerText || node.textContent;
        });
        var previousScrollTop = element.scrollTop;

        var value = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor());
        var selectedValue = element.value;

        // Remove all existing <option>s.
        // Need to use .remove() rather than .removeChild() for <option>s otherwise IE behaves oddly (https://github.com/SteveSanderson/knockout/issues/134)
        while (element.length > 0) {
            ko.cleanNode(element.options[0]);
            element.remove(0);
        }

        if (value) {
            var allBindings = allBindingsAccessor();
            if (typeof value.length != "number")
                value = [value];
            if (allBindings['optionsCaption']) {
                var option = document.createElement("option");
                ko.utils.setHtml(option, allBindings['optionsCaption']);
                ko.selectExtensions.writeValue(option, undefined);
                element.appendChild(option);
            }
            for (var i = 0, j = value.length; i < j; i++) {
                var option = document.createElement("option");

                // Apply a value to the option element
                var optionValue = typeof allBindings['optionsValue'] == "string" ? value[i][allBindings['optionsValue']] : value[i];
                optionValue = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(optionValue);
                ko.selectExtensions.writeValue(option, optionValue);

                // Apply some text to the option element
                var optionsTextValue = allBindings['optionsText'];
                var optionText;
                if (typeof optionsTextValue == "function")
                    optionText = optionsTextValue(value[i]); // Given a function; run it against the data value
                else if (typeof optionsTextValue == "string")
                    optionText = value[i][optionsTextValue]; // Given a string; treat it as a property name on the data value
                else
                    optionText = optionValue;				 // Given no optionsText arg; use the data value itself
                if ((optionText === null) || (optionText === undefined))
                    optionText = "";

                ko.utils.setTextContent(option, optionText);

                element.appendChild(option);
            }

            // IE6 doesn't like us to assign selection to OPTION nodes before they're added to the document.
            // That's why we first added them without selection. Now it's time to set the selection.
            var newOptions = element.getElementsByTagName("option");
            var countSelectionsRetained = 0;
            for (var i = 0, j = newOptions.length; i < j; i++) {
                if (ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(previousSelectedValues, ko.selectExtensions.readValue(newOptions[i])) >= 0) {
                    ko.utils.setOptionNodeSelectionState(newOptions[i], true);
                    countSelectionsRetained++;
                }
            }

            element.scrollTop = previousScrollTop;

            if (selectWasPreviouslyEmpty && ('value' in allBindings)) {
                // Ensure consistency between model value and selected option.
                // If the dropdown is being populated for the first time here (or was otherwise previously empty),
                // the dropdown selection state is meaningless, so we preserve the model value.
                ensureDropdownSelectionIsConsistentWithModelValue(element, ko.utils.unwrapObservable(allBindings['value']), /* preferModelValue */ true);
            }

            // Workaround for IE9 bug
            ko.utils.ensureSelectElementIsRenderedCorrectly(element);
        }
    }
};
ko.bindingHandlers['options'].optionValueDomDataKey = '__ko.optionValueDomData__';

ko.bindingHandlers['selectedOptions'] = {
    getSelectedValuesFromSelectNode: function (selectNode) {
        var result = [];
        var nodes = selectNode.childNodes;
        for (var i = 0, j = nodes.length; i < j; i++) {
            var node = nodes[i], tagName = ko.utils.tagNameLower(node);
            if (tagName == "option" && node.selected)
                result.push(ko.selectExtensions.readValue(node));
            else if (tagName == "optgroup") {
                var selectedValuesFromOptGroup = ko.bindingHandlers['selectedOptions'].getSelectedValuesFromSelectNode(node);
                Array.prototype.splice.apply(result, [result.length, 0].concat(selectedValuesFromOptGroup)); // Add new entries to existing 'result' instance
            }
        }
        return result;
    },
    'init': function (element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor) {
        ko.utils.registerEventHandler(element, "change", function () {
            var value = valueAccessor();
            var valueToWrite = ko.bindingHandlers['selectedOptions'].getSelectedValuesFromSelectNode(this);
            ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.writeValueToProperty(value, allBindingsAccessor, 'value', valueToWrite);
        });
    },
    'update': function (element, valueAccessor) {
        if (ko.utils.tagNameLower(element) != "select")
            throw new Error("values binding applies only to SELECT elements");

        var newValue = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor());
        if (newValue && typeof newValue.length == "number") {
            var nodes = element.childNodes;
            for (var i = 0, j = nodes.length; i < j; i++) {
                var node = nodes[i];
                if (ko.utils.tagNameLower(node) === "option")
                    ko.utils.setOptionNodeSelectionState(node, ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(newValue, ko.selectExtensions.readValue(node)) >= 0);
            }
        }
    }
};

ko.bindingHandlers['text'] = {
    'update': function (element, valueAccessor) {
        ko.utils.setTextContent(element, valueAccessor());
    }
};

ko.bindingHandlers['html'] = {
    'init': function() {
        // Prevent binding on the dynamically-injected HTML (as developers are unlikely to expect that, and it has security implications)
        return { 'controlsDescendantBindings': true };
    },
    'update': function (element, valueAccessor) {
        var value = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor());
        ko.utils.setHtml(element, value);
    }
};

ko.bindingHandlers['css'] = {
    'update': function (element, valueAccessor) {
        var value = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor() || {});
        for (var className in value) {
            if (typeof className == "string") {
                var shouldHaveClass = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(value[className]);
                ko.utils.toggleDomNodeCssClass(element, className, shouldHaveClass);
            }
        }
    }
};

ko.bindingHandlers['style'] = {
    'update': function (element, valueAccessor) {
        var value = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor() || {});
        for (var styleName in value) {
            if (typeof styleName == "string") {
                var styleValue = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(value[styleName]);
                element.style[styleName] = styleValue || ""; // Empty string removes the value, whereas null/undefined have no effect
            }
        }
    }
};

ko.bindingHandlers['uniqueName'] = {
    'init': function (element, valueAccessor) {
        if (valueAccessor()) {
            element.name = "ko_unique_" + (++ko.bindingHandlers['uniqueName'].currentIndex);

            // Workaround IE 6/7 issue
            // - https://github.com/SteveSanderson/knockout/issues/197
            // - http://www.matts411.com/post/setting_the_name_attribute_in_ie_dom/
            if (ko.utils.isIe6 || ko.utils.isIe7)
                element.mergeAttributes(document.createElement("<input name='" + element.name + "'/>"), false);
        }
    }
};
ko.bindingHandlers['uniqueName'].currentIndex = 0;

ko.bindingHandlers['checked'] = {
    'init': function (element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor) {
        var updateHandler = function() {
            var valueToWrite;
            if (element.type == "checkbox") {
                valueToWrite = element.checked;
            } else if ((element.type == "radio") && (element.checked)) {
                valueToWrite = element.value;
            } else {
                return; // "checked" binding only responds to checkboxes and selected radio buttons
            }

            var modelValue = valueAccessor();
            if ((element.type == "checkbox") && (ko.utils.unwrapObservable(modelValue) instanceof Array)) {
                // For checkboxes bound to an array, we add/remove the checkbox value to that array
                // This works for both observable and non-observable arrays
                var existingEntryIndex = ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(ko.utils.unwrapObservable(modelValue), element.value);
                if (element.checked && (existingEntryIndex < 0))
                    modelValue.push(element.value);
                else if ((!element.checked) && (existingEntryIndex >= 0))
                    modelValue.splice(existingEntryIndex, 1);
            } else {
                ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.writeValueToProperty(modelValue, allBindingsAccessor, 'checked', valueToWrite, true);
            }
        };
        ko.utils.registerEventHandler(element, "click", updateHandler);

        // IE 6 won't allow radio buttons to be selected unless they have a name
        if ((element.type == "radio") && !element.name)
            ko.bindingHandlers['uniqueName']['init'](element, function() { return true });
    },
    'update': function (element, valueAccessor) {
        var value = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor());

        if (element.type == "checkbox") {
            if (value instanceof Array) {
                // When bound to an array, the checkbox being checked represents its value being present in that array
                element.checked = ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(value, element.value) >= 0;
            } else {
                // When bound to anything other value (not an array), the checkbox being checked represents the value being trueish
                element.checked = value;
            }
        } else if (element.type == "radio") {
            element.checked = (element.value == value);
        }
    }
};

var attrHtmlToJavascriptMap = { 'class': 'className', 'for': 'htmlFor' };
ko.bindingHandlers['attr'] = {
    'update': function(element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor) {
        var value = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor()) || {};
        for (var attrName in value) {
            if (typeof attrName == "string") {
                var attrValue = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(value[attrName]);

                // To cover cases like "attr: { checked:someProp }", we want to remove the attribute entirely
                // when someProp is a "no value"-like value (strictly null, false, or undefined)
                // (because the absence of the "checked" attr is how to mark an element as not checked, etc.)
                var toRemove = (attrValue === false) || (attrValue === null) || (attrValue === undefined);
                if (toRemove)
                    element.removeAttribute(attrName);

                // In IE <= 7 and IE8 Quirks Mode, you have to use the Javascript property name instead of the
                // HTML attribute name for certain attributes. IE8 Standards Mode supports the correct behavior,
                // but instead of figuring out the mode, we'll just set the attribute through the Javascript
                // property for IE <= 8.
                if (ko.utils.ieVersion <= 8 && attrName in attrHtmlToJavascriptMap) {
                    attrName = attrHtmlToJavascriptMap[attrName];
                    if (toRemove)
                        element.removeAttribute(attrName);
                    else
                        element[attrName] = attrValue;
                } else if (!toRemove) {
                    element.setAttribute(attrName, attrValue.toString());
                }
            }
        }
    }
};

ko.bindingHandlers['hasfocus'] = {
    'init': function(element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor) {
        var writeValue = function(valueToWrite) {
            var modelValue = valueAccessor();
            ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.writeValueToProperty(modelValue, allBindingsAccessor, 'hasfocus', valueToWrite, true);
        };
        ko.utils.registerEventHandler(element, "focus", function() { writeValue(true) });
        ko.utils.registerEventHandler(element, "focusin", function() { writeValue(true) }); // For IE
        ko.utils.registerEventHandler(element, "blur",  function() { writeValue(false) });
        ko.utils.registerEventHandler(element, "focusout",  function() { writeValue(false) }); // For IE
    },
    'update': function(element, valueAccessor) {
        var value = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor());
        value ? element.focus() : element.blur();
        ko.utils.triggerEvent(element, value ? "focusin" : "focusout"); // For IE, which doesn't reliably fire "focus" or "blur" events synchronously
    }
};

// "with: someExpression" is equivalent to "template: { if: someExpression, data: someExpression }"
ko.bindingHandlers['with'] = {
    makeTemplateValueAccessor: function(valueAccessor) {
        return function() { var value = valueAccessor(); return { 'if': value, 'data': value, 'templateEngine': ko.nativeTemplateEngine.instance } };
    },
    'init': function(element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext) {
        return ko.bindingHandlers['template']['init'](element, ko.bindingHandlers['with'].makeTemplateValueAccessor(valueAccessor));
    },
    'update': function(element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext) {
        return ko.bindingHandlers['template']['update'](element, ko.bindingHandlers['with'].makeTemplateValueAccessor(valueAccessor), allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext);
    }
};
ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.bindingRewriteValidators['with'] = false; // Can't rewrite control flow bindings
ko.virtualElements.allowedBindings['with'] = true;

// "if: someExpression" is equivalent to "template: { if: someExpression }"
ko.bindingHandlers['if'] = {
    makeTemplateValueAccessor: function(valueAccessor) {
        return function() { return { 'if': valueAccessor(), 'templateEngine': ko.nativeTemplateEngine.instance } };
    },
    'init': function(element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext) {
        return ko.bindingHandlers['template']['init'](element, ko.bindingHandlers['if'].makeTemplateValueAccessor(valueAccessor));
    },
    'update': function(element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext) {
        return ko.bindingHandlers['template']['update'](element, ko.bindingHandlers['if'].makeTemplateValueAccessor(valueAccessor), allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext);
    }
};
ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.bindingRewriteValidators['if'] = false; // Can't rewrite control flow bindings
ko.virtualElements.allowedBindings['if'] = true;

// "ifnot: someExpression" is equivalent to "template: { ifnot: someExpression }"
ko.bindingHandlers['ifnot'] = {
    makeTemplateValueAccessor: function(valueAccessor) {
        return function() { return { 'ifnot': valueAccessor(), 'templateEngine': ko.nativeTemplateEngine.instance } };
    },
    'init': function(element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext) {
        return ko.bindingHandlers['template']['init'](element, ko.bindingHandlers['ifnot'].makeTemplateValueAccessor(valueAccessor));
    },
    'update': function(element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext) {
        return ko.bindingHandlers['template']['update'](element, ko.bindingHandlers['ifnot'].makeTemplateValueAccessor(valueAccessor), allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext);
    }
};
ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.bindingRewriteValidators['ifnot'] = false; // Can't rewrite control flow bindings
ko.virtualElements.allowedBindings['ifnot'] = true;

// "foreach: someExpression" is equivalent to "template: { foreach: someExpression }"
// "foreach: { data: someExpression, afterAdd: myfn }" is equivalent to "template: { foreach: someExpression, afterAdd: myfn }"
ko.bindingHandlers['foreach'] = {
    makeTemplateValueAccessor: function(valueAccessor) {
        return function() {
            var bindingValue = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor());

            // If bindingValue is the array, just pass it on its own
            if ((!bindingValue) || typeof bindingValue.length == "number")
                return { 'foreach': bindingValue, 'templateEngine': ko.nativeTemplateEngine.instance };

            // If bindingValue.data is the array, preserve all relevant options
            return {
                'foreach': bindingValue['data'],
                'includeDestroyed': bindingValue['includeDestroyed'],
                'afterAdd': bindingValue['afterAdd'],
                'beforeRemove': bindingValue['beforeRemove'],
                'afterRender': bindingValue['afterRender'],
                'templateEngine': ko.nativeTemplateEngine.instance
            };
        };
    },
    'init': function(element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext) {
        return ko.bindingHandlers['template']['init'](element, ko.bindingHandlers['foreach'].makeTemplateValueAccessor(valueAccessor));
    },
    'update': function(element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext) {
        return ko.bindingHandlers['template']['update'](element, ko.bindingHandlers['foreach'].makeTemplateValueAccessor(valueAccessor), allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext);
    }
};
ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.bindingRewriteValidators['foreach'] = false; // Can't rewrite control flow bindings
ko.virtualElements.allowedBindings['foreach'] = true;
// If you want to make a custom template engine,
//
// [1] Inherit from this class (like ko.nativeTemplateEngine does)
// [2] Override 'renderTemplateSource', supplying a function with this signature:
//
//        function (templateSource, bindingContext, options) {
//            // - templateSource.text() is the text of the template you should render
//            // - bindingContext.$data is the data you should pass into the template
//            //   - you might also want to make bindingContext.$parent, bindingContext.$parents,
//            //     and bindingContext.$root available in the template too
//            // - options gives you access to any other properties set on "data-bind: { template: options }"
//            //
//            // Return value: an array of DOM nodes
//        }
//
// [3] Override 'createJavaScriptEvaluatorBlock', supplying a function with this signature:
//
//        function (script) {
//            // Return value: Whatever syntax means "Evaluate the JavaScript statement 'script' and output the result"
//            //               For example, the jquery.tmpl template engine converts 'someScript' to '${ someScript }'
//        }
//
//     This is only necessary if you want to allow data-bind attributes to reference arbitrary template variables.
//     If you don't want to allow that, you can set the property 'allowTemplateRewriting' to false (like ko.nativeTemplateEngine does)
//     and then you don't need to override 'createJavaScriptEvaluatorBlock'.

ko.templateEngine = function () { };

ko.templateEngine.prototype['renderTemplateSource'] = function (templateSource, bindingContext, options) {
    throw new Error("Override renderTemplateSource");
};

ko.templateEngine.prototype['createJavaScriptEvaluatorBlock'] = function (script) {
    throw new Error("Override createJavaScriptEvaluatorBlock");
};

ko.templateEngine.prototype['makeTemplateSource'] = function(template, templateDocument) {
    // Named template
    if (typeof template == "string") {
        templateDocument = templateDocument || document;
        var elem = templateDocument.getElementById(template);
        if (!elem)
            throw new Error("Cannot find template with ID " + template);
        return new ko.templateSources.domElement(elem);
    } else if ((template.nodeType == 1) || (template.nodeType == 8)) {
        // Anonymous template
        return new ko.templateSources.anonymousTemplate(template);
    } else
        throw new Error("Unknown template type: " + template);
};

ko.templateEngine.prototype['renderTemplate'] = function (template, bindingContext, options, templateDocument) {
    var templateSource = this['makeTemplateSource'](template, templateDocument);
    return this['renderTemplateSource'](templateSource, bindingContext, options);
};

ko.templateEngine.prototype['isTemplateRewritten'] = function (template, templateDocument) {
    // Skip rewriting if requested
    if (this['allowTemplateRewriting'] === false)
        return true;

    // Perf optimisation - see below
    var templateIsInExternalDocument = templateDocument && templateDocument != document;
    if (!templateIsInExternalDocument && this.knownRewrittenTemplates && this.knownRewrittenTemplates[template])
        return true;

    return this['makeTemplateSource'](template, templateDocument)['data']("isRewritten");
};

ko.templateEngine.prototype['rewriteTemplate'] = function (template, rewriterCallback, templateDocument) {
    var templateSource = this['makeTemplateSource'](template, templateDocument);
    var rewritten = rewriterCallback(templateSource['text']());
    templateSource['text'](rewritten);
    templateSource['data']("isRewritten", true);

    // Perf optimisation - for named templates, track which ones have been rewritten so we can
    // answer 'isTemplateRewritten' *without* having to use getElementById (which is slow on IE < 8)
    //
    // Note that we only cache the status for templates in the main document, because caching on a per-doc
    // basis complicates the implementation excessively. In a future version of KO, we will likely remove
    // this 'isRewritten' cache entirely anyway, because the benefit is extremely minor and only applies
    // to rewritable templates, which are pretty much deprecated since KO 2.0.
    var templateIsInExternalDocument = templateDocument && templateDocument != document;
    if (!templateIsInExternalDocument && typeof template == "string") {
        this.knownRewrittenTemplates = this.knownRewrittenTemplates || {};
        this.knownRewrittenTemplates[template] = true;
    }
};

ko.exportSymbol('templateEngine', ko.templateEngine);

ko.templateRewriting = (function () {
    var memoizeDataBindingAttributeSyntaxRegex = /(<[a-z]+\d*(\s+(?!data-bind=)[a-z0-9\-]+(=(\"[^\"]*\"|\'[^\']*\'))?)*\s+)data-bind=(["'])([\s\S]*?)\5/gi;
    var memoizeVirtualContainerBindingSyntaxRegex = /<!--\s*ko\b\s*([\s\S]*?)\s*-->/g;

    function validateDataBindValuesForRewriting(keyValueArray) {
        var allValidators = ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.bindingRewriteValidators;
        for (var i = 0; i < keyValueArray.length; i++) {
            var key = keyValueArray[i]['key'];
            if (allValidators.hasOwnProperty(key)) {
                var validator = allValidators[key];

                if (typeof validator === "function") {
                    var possibleErrorMessage = validator(keyValueArray[i]['value']);
                    if (possibleErrorMessage)
                        throw new Error(possibleErrorMessage);
                } else if (!validator) {
                    throw new Error("This template engine does not support the '" + key + "' binding within its templates");
                }
            }
        }
    }

    function constructMemoizedTagReplacement(dataBindAttributeValue, tagToRetain, templateEngine) {
        var dataBindKeyValueArray = ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.parseObjectLiteral(dataBindAttributeValue);
        validateDataBindValuesForRewriting(dataBindKeyValueArray);
        var rewrittenDataBindAttributeValue = ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.insertPropertyAccessorsIntoJson(dataBindKeyValueArray);

        // For no obvious reason, Opera fails to evaluate rewrittenDataBindAttributeValue unless it's wrapped in an additional
        // anonymous function, even though Opera's built-in debugger can evaluate it anyway. No other browser requires this
        // extra indirection.
        var applyBindingsToNextSiblingScript = "ko.templateRewriting.applyMemoizedBindingsToNextSibling(function() { \
            return (function() { return { " + rewrittenDataBindAttributeValue + " } })() \
        })";
        return templateEngine['createJavaScriptEvaluatorBlock'](applyBindingsToNextSiblingScript) + tagToRetain;
    }

    return {
        ensureTemplateIsRewritten: function (template, templateEngine, templateDocument) {
            if (!templateEngine['isTemplateRewritten'](template, templateDocument))
                templateEngine['rewriteTemplate'](template, function (htmlString) {
                    return ko.templateRewriting.memoizeBindingAttributeSyntax(htmlString, templateEngine);
                }, templateDocument);
        },

        memoizeBindingAttributeSyntax: function (htmlString, templateEngine) {
            return htmlString.replace(memoizeDataBindingAttributeSyntaxRegex, function () {
                return constructMemoizedTagReplacement(/* dataBindAttributeValue: */ arguments[6], /* tagToRetain: */ arguments[1], templateEngine);
            }).replace(memoizeVirtualContainerBindingSyntaxRegex, function() {
                return constructMemoizedTagReplacement(/* dataBindAttributeValue: */ arguments[1], /* tagToRetain: */ "<!-- ko -->", templateEngine);
            });
        },

        applyMemoizedBindingsToNextSibling: function (bindings) {
            return ko.memoization.memoize(function (domNode, bindingContext) {
                if (domNode.nextSibling)
                    ko.applyBindingsToNode(domNode.nextSibling, bindings, bindingContext);
            });
        }
    }
})();

ko.exportSymbol('templateRewriting', ko.templateRewriting);
ko.exportSymbol('templateRewriting.applyMemoizedBindingsToNextSibling', ko.templateRewriting.applyMemoizedBindingsToNextSibling); // Exported only because it has to be referenced by string lookup from within rewritten template
(function() {
    // A template source represents a read/write way of accessing a template. This is to eliminate the need for template loading/saving
    // logic to be duplicated in every template engine (and means they can all work with anonymous templates, etc.)
    //
    // Two are provided by default:
    //  1. ko.templateSources.domElement       - reads/writes the text content of an arbitrary DOM element
    //  2. ko.templateSources.anonymousElement - uses ko.utils.domData to read/write text *associated* with the DOM element, but
    //                                           without reading/writing the actual element text content, since it will be overwritten
    //                                           with the rendered template output.
    // You can implement your own template source if you want to fetch/store templates somewhere other than in DOM elements.
    // Template sources need to have the following functions:
    //   text() 			- returns the template text from your storage location
    //   text(value)		- writes the supplied template text to your storage location
    //   data(key)			- reads values stored using data(key, value) - see below
    //   data(key, value)	- associates "value" with this template and the key "key". Is used to store information like "isRewritten".
    //
    // Optionally, template sources can also have the following functions:
    //   nodes()            - returns a DOM element containing the nodes of this template, where available
    //   nodes(value)       - writes the given DOM element to your storage location
    // If a DOM element is available for a given template source, template engines are encouraged to use it in preference over text()
    // for improved speed. However, all templateSources must supply text() even if they don't supply nodes().
    //
    // Once you've implemented a templateSource, make your template engine use it by subclassing whatever template engine you were
    // using and overriding "makeTemplateSource" to return an instance of your custom template source.

    ko.templateSources = {};

    // ---- ko.templateSources.domElement -----

    ko.templateSources.domElement = function(element) {
        this.domElement = element;
    }

    ko.templateSources.domElement.prototype['text'] = function(/* valueToWrite */) {
        var tagNameLower = ko.utils.tagNameLower(this.domElement),
            elemContentsProperty = tagNameLower === "script" ? "text"
                                 : tagNameLower === "textarea" ? "value"
                                 : "innerHTML";

        if (arguments.length == 0) {
            return this.domElement[elemContentsProperty];
        } else {
            var valueToWrite = arguments[0];
            if (elemContentsProperty === "innerHTML")
                ko.utils.setHtml(this.domElement, valueToWrite);
            else
                this.domElement[elemContentsProperty] = valueToWrite;
        }
    };

    ko.templateSources.domElement.prototype['data'] = function(key /*, valueToWrite */) {
        if (arguments.length === 1) {
            return ko.utils.domData.get(this.domElement, "templateSourceData_" + key);
        } else {
            ko.utils.domData.set(this.domElement, "templateSourceData_" + key, arguments[1]);
        }
    };

    // ---- ko.templateSources.anonymousTemplate -----
    // Anonymous templates are normally saved/retrieved as DOM nodes through "nodes".
    // For compatibility, you can also read "text"; it will be serialized from the nodes on demand.
    // Writing to "text" is still supported, but then the template data will not be available as DOM nodes.

    var anonymousTemplatesDomDataKey = "__ko_anon_template__";
    ko.templateSources.anonymousTemplate = function(element) {
        this.domElement = element;
    }
    ko.templateSources.anonymousTemplate.prototype = new ko.templateSources.domElement();
    ko.templateSources.anonymousTemplate.prototype['text'] = function(/* valueToWrite */) {
        if (arguments.length == 0) {
            var templateData = ko.utils.domData.get(this.domElement, anonymousTemplatesDomDataKey) || {};
            if (templateData.textData === undefined && templateData.containerData)
                templateData.textData = templateData.containerData.innerHTML;
            return templateData.textData;
        } else {
            var valueToWrite = arguments[0];
            ko.utils.domData.set(this.domElement, anonymousTemplatesDomDataKey, {textData: valueToWrite});
        }
    };
    ko.templateSources.domElement.prototype['nodes'] = function(/* valueToWrite */) {
        if (arguments.length == 0) {
            var templateData = ko.utils.domData.get(this.domElement, anonymousTemplatesDomDataKey) || {};
            return templateData.containerData;
        } else {
            var valueToWrite = arguments[0];
            ko.utils.domData.set(this.domElement, anonymousTemplatesDomDataKey, {containerData: valueToWrite});
        }
    };

    ko.exportSymbol('templateSources', ko.templateSources);
    ko.exportSymbol('templateSources.domElement', ko.templateSources.domElement);
    ko.exportSymbol('templateSources.anonymousTemplate', ko.templateSources.anonymousTemplate);
})();
(function () {
    var _templateEngine;
    ko.setTemplateEngine = function (templateEngine) {
        if ((templateEngine != undefined) && !(templateEngine instanceof ko.templateEngine))
            throw new Error("templateEngine must inherit from ko.templateEngine");
        _templateEngine = templateEngine;
    }

    function invokeForEachNodeOrCommentInContinuousRange(firstNode, lastNode, action) {
        var node, nextInQueue = firstNode, firstOutOfRangeNode = ko.virtualElements.nextSibling(lastNode);
        while (nextInQueue && ((node = nextInQueue) !== firstOutOfRangeNode)) {
            nextInQueue = ko.virtualElements.nextSibling(node);
            if (node.nodeType === 1 || node.nodeType === 8)
                action(node);
        }
    }

    function activateBindingsOnContinuousNodeArray(continuousNodeArray, bindingContext) {
        // To be used on any nodes that have been rendered by a template and have been inserted into some parent element
        // Walks through continuousNodeArray (which *must* be continuous, i.e., an uninterrupted sequence of sibling nodes, because
        // the algorithm for walking them relies on this), and for each top-level item in the virtual-element sense,
        // (1) Does a regular "applyBindings" to associate bindingContext with this node and to activate any non-memoized bindings
        // (2) Unmemoizes any memos in the DOM subtree (e.g., to activate bindings that had been memoized during template rewriting)

        if (continuousNodeArray.length) {
            var firstNode = continuousNodeArray[0], lastNode = continuousNodeArray[continuousNodeArray.length - 1];

            // Need to applyBindings *before* unmemoziation, because unmemoization might introduce extra nodes (that we don't want to re-bind)
            // whereas a regular applyBindings won't introduce new memoized nodes
            invokeForEachNodeOrCommentInContinuousRange(firstNode, lastNode, function(node) {
                ko.applyBindings(bindingContext, node);
            });
            invokeForEachNodeOrCommentInContinuousRange(firstNode, lastNode, function(node) {
                ko.memoization.unmemoizeDomNodeAndDescendants(node, [bindingContext]);
            });
        }
    }

    function getFirstNodeFromPossibleArray(nodeOrNodeArray) {
        return nodeOrNodeArray.nodeType ? nodeOrNodeArray
                                        : nodeOrNodeArray.length > 0 ? nodeOrNodeArray[0]
                                        : null;
    }

    function executeTemplate(targetNodeOrNodeArray, renderMode, template, bindingContext, options) {
        options = options || {};
        var firstTargetNode = targetNodeOrNodeArray && getFirstNodeFromPossibleArray(targetNodeOrNodeArray);
        var templateDocument = firstTargetNode && firstTargetNode.ownerDocument;
        var templateEngineToUse = (options['templateEngine'] || _templateEngine);
        ko.templateRewriting.ensureTemplateIsRewritten(template, templateEngineToUse, templateDocument);
        var renderedNodesArray = templateEngineToUse['renderTemplate'](template, bindingContext, options, templateDocument);

        // Loosely check result is an array of DOM nodes
        if ((typeof renderedNodesArray.length != "number") || (renderedNodesArray.length > 0 && typeof renderedNodesArray[0].nodeType != "number"))
            throw new Error("Template engine must return an array of DOM nodes");

        var haveAddedNodesToParent = false;
        switch (renderMode) {
            case "replaceChildren":
                ko.virtualElements.setDomNodeChildren(targetNodeOrNodeArray, renderedNodesArray);
                haveAddedNodesToParent = true;
                break;
            case "replaceNode":
                ko.utils.replaceDomNodes(targetNodeOrNodeArray, renderedNodesArray);
                haveAddedNodesToParent = true;
                break;
            case "ignoreTargetNode": break;
            default:
                throw new Error("Unknown renderMode: " + renderMode);
        }

        if (haveAddedNodesToParent) {
            activateBindingsOnContinuousNodeArray(renderedNodesArray, bindingContext);
            if (options['afterRender'])
                options['afterRender'](renderedNodesArray, bindingContext['$data']);
        }

        return renderedNodesArray;
    }

    ko.renderTemplate = function (template, dataOrBindingContext, options, targetNodeOrNodeArray, renderMode) {
        options = options || {};
        if ((options['templateEngine'] || _templateEngine) == undefined)
            throw new Error("Set a template engine before calling renderTemplate");
        renderMode = renderMode || "replaceChildren";

        if (targetNodeOrNodeArray) {
            var firstTargetNode = getFirstNodeFromPossibleArray(targetNodeOrNodeArray);

            var whenToDispose = function () { return (!firstTargetNode) || !ko.utils.domNodeIsAttachedToDocument(firstTargetNode); }; // Passive disposal (on next evaluation)
            var activelyDisposeWhenNodeIsRemoved = (firstTargetNode && renderMode == "replaceNode") ? firstTargetNode.parentNode : firstTargetNode;

            return ko.dependentObservable( // So the DOM is automatically updated when any dependency changes
                function () {
                    // Ensure we've got a proper binding context to work with
                    var bindingContext = (dataOrBindingContext && (dataOrBindingContext instanceof ko.bindingContext))
                        ? dataOrBindingContext
                        : new ko.bindingContext(ko.utils.unwrapObservable(dataOrBindingContext));

                    // Support selecting template as a function of the data being rendered
                    var templateName = typeof(template) == 'function' ? template(bindingContext['$data']) : template;

                    var renderedNodesArray = executeTemplate(targetNodeOrNodeArray, renderMode, templateName, bindingContext, options);
                    if (renderMode == "replaceNode") {
                        targetNodeOrNodeArray = renderedNodesArray;
                        firstTargetNode = getFirstNodeFromPossibleArray(targetNodeOrNodeArray);
                    }
                },
                null,
                { 'disposeWhen': whenToDispose, 'disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved': activelyDisposeWhenNodeIsRemoved }
            );
        } else {
            // We don't yet have a DOM node to evaluate, so use a memo and render the template later when there is a DOM node
            return ko.memoization.memoize(function (domNode) {
                ko.renderTemplate(template, dataOrBindingContext, options, domNode, "replaceNode");
            });
        }
    };

    ko.renderTemplateForEach = function (template, arrayOrObservableArray, options, targetNode, parentBindingContext) {
        // Since setDomNodeChildrenFromArrayMapping always calls executeTemplateForArrayItem and then
        // activateBindingsCallback for added items, we can store the binding context in the former to use in the latter.
        var arrayItemContext;

        // This will be called by setDomNodeChildrenFromArrayMapping to get the nodes to add to targetNode
        var executeTemplateForArrayItem = function (arrayValue, index) {
            // Support selecting template as a function of the data being rendered
            var templateName = typeof(template) == 'function' ? template(arrayValue) : template;
            arrayItemContext = parentBindingContext['createChildContext'](ko.utils.unwrapObservable(arrayValue));
            arrayItemContext['$index'] = index;
            return executeTemplate(null, "ignoreTargetNode", templateName, arrayItemContext, options);
        }

        // This will be called whenever setDomNodeChildrenFromArrayMapping has added nodes to targetNode
        var activateBindingsCallback = function(arrayValue, addedNodesArray, index) {
            activateBindingsOnContinuousNodeArray(addedNodesArray, arrayItemContext);
            if (options['afterRender'])
                options['afterRender'](addedNodesArray, arrayValue);
        };

        return ko.dependentObservable(function () {
            var unwrappedArray = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(arrayOrObservableArray) || [];
            if (typeof unwrappedArray.length == "undefined") // Coerce single value into array
                unwrappedArray = [unwrappedArray];

            // Filter out any entries marked as destroyed
            var filteredArray = ko.utils.arrayFilter(unwrappedArray, function(item) {
                return options['includeDestroyed'] || item === undefined || item === null || !ko.utils.unwrapObservable(item['_destroy']);
            });

            ko.utils.setDomNodeChildrenFromArrayMapping(targetNode, filteredArray, executeTemplateForArrayItem, options, activateBindingsCallback);

        }, null, { 'disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved': targetNode });
    };

    var templateSubscriptionDomDataKey = '__ko__templateSubscriptionDomDataKey__';
    function disposeOldSubscriptionAndStoreNewOne(element, newSubscription) {
        var oldSubscription = ko.utils.domData.get(element, templateSubscriptionDomDataKey);
        if (oldSubscription && (typeof(oldSubscription.dispose) == 'function'))
            oldSubscription.dispose();
        ko.utils.domData.set(element, templateSubscriptionDomDataKey, newSubscription);
    }

    ko.bindingHandlers['template'] = {
        'init': function(element, valueAccessor) {
            // Support anonymous templates
            var bindingValue = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor());
            if ((typeof bindingValue != "string") && (!bindingValue['name']) && (element.nodeType == 1 || element.nodeType == 8)) {
                // It's an anonymous template - store the element contents, then clear the element
                var templateNodes = element.nodeType == 1 ? element.childNodes : ko.virtualElements.childNodes(element),
                    container = ko.utils.moveCleanedNodesToContainerElement(templateNodes); // This also removes the nodes from their current parent
                new ko.templateSources.anonymousTemplate(element)['nodes'](container);
            }
            return { 'controlsDescendantBindings': true };
        },
        'update': function (element, valueAccessor, allBindingsAccessor, viewModel, bindingContext) {
            var bindingValue = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(valueAccessor());
            var templateName;
            var shouldDisplay = true;

            if (typeof bindingValue == "string") {
                templateName = bindingValue;
            } else {
                templateName = bindingValue['name'];

                // Support "if"/"ifnot" conditions
                if ('if' in bindingValue)
                    shouldDisplay = shouldDisplay && ko.utils.unwrapObservable(bindingValue['if']);
                if ('ifnot' in bindingValue)
                    shouldDisplay = shouldDisplay && !ko.utils.unwrapObservable(bindingValue['ifnot']);
            }

            var templateSubscription = null;

            if ((typeof bindingValue === 'object') && ('foreach' in bindingValue)) { // Note: can't use 'in' operator on strings
                // Render once for each data point (treating data set as empty if shouldDisplay==false)
                var dataArray = (shouldDisplay && bindingValue['foreach']) || [];
                templateSubscription = ko.renderTemplateForEach(templateName || element, dataArray, /* options: */ bindingValue, element, bindingContext);
            } else {
                if (shouldDisplay) {
                    // Render once for this single data point (or use the viewModel if no data was provided)
                    var innerBindingContext = (typeof bindingValue == 'object') && ('data' in bindingValue)
                        ? bindingContext['createChildContext'](ko.utils.unwrapObservable(bindingValue['data'])) // Given an explitit 'data' value, we create a child binding context for it
                        : bindingContext;                                                                       // Given no explicit 'data' value, we retain the same binding context
                    templateSubscription = ko.renderTemplate(templateName || element, innerBindingContext, /* options: */ bindingValue, element);
                } else
                    ko.virtualElements.emptyNode(element);
            }

            // It only makes sense to have a single template subscription per element (otherwise which one should have its output displayed?)
            disposeOldSubscriptionAndStoreNewOne(element, templateSubscription);
        }
    };

    // Anonymous templates can't be rewritten. Give a nice error message if you try to do it.
    ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.bindingRewriteValidators['template'] = function(bindingValue) {
        var parsedBindingValue = ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.parseObjectLiteral(bindingValue);

        if ((parsedBindingValue.length == 1) && parsedBindingValue[0]['unknown'])
            return null; // It looks like a string literal, not an object literal, so treat it as a named template (which is allowed for rewriting)

        if (ko.jsonExpressionRewriting.keyValueArrayContainsKey(parsedBindingValue, "name"))
            return null; // Named templates can be rewritten, so return "no error"
        return "This template engine does not support anonymous templates nested within its templates";
    };

    ko.virtualElements.allowedBindings['template'] = true;
})();

ko.exportSymbol('setTemplateEngine', ko.setTemplateEngine);
ko.exportSymbol('renderTemplate', ko.renderTemplate);

(function () {
    // Simple calculation based on Levenshtein distance.
    function calculateEditDistanceMatrix(oldArray, newArray, maxAllowedDistance) {
        var distances = [];
        for (var i = 0; i <= newArray.length; i++)
            distances[i] = [];

        // Top row - transform old array into empty array via deletions
        for (var i = 0, j = Math.min(oldArray.length, maxAllowedDistance); i <= j; i++)
            distances[0][i] = i;

        // Left row - transform empty array into new array via additions
        for (var i = 1, j = Math.min(newArray.length, maxAllowedDistance); i <= j; i++) {
            distances[i][0] = i;
        }

        // Fill out the body of the array
        var oldIndex, oldIndexMax = oldArray.length, newIndex, newIndexMax = newArray.length;
        var distanceViaAddition, distanceViaDeletion;
        for (oldIndex = 1; oldIndex <= oldIndexMax; oldIndex++) {
            var newIndexMinForRow = Math.max(1, oldIndex - maxAllowedDistance);
            var newIndexMaxForRow = Math.min(newIndexMax, oldIndex + maxAllowedDistance);
            for (newIndex = newIndexMinForRow; newIndex <= newIndexMaxForRow; newIndex++) {
                if (oldArray[oldIndex - 1] === newArray[newIndex - 1])
                    distances[newIndex][oldIndex] = distances[newIndex - 1][oldIndex - 1];
                else {
                    var northDistance = distances[newIndex - 1][oldIndex] === undefined ? Number.MAX_VALUE : distances[newIndex - 1][oldIndex] + 1;
                    var westDistance = distances[newIndex][oldIndex - 1] === undefined ? Number.MAX_VALUE : distances[newIndex][oldIndex - 1] + 1;
                    distances[newIndex][oldIndex] = Math.min(northDistance, westDistance);
                }
            }
        }

        return distances;
    }

    function findEditScriptFromEditDistanceMatrix(editDistanceMatrix, oldArray, newArray) {
        var oldIndex = oldArray.length;
        var newIndex = newArray.length;
        var editScript = [];
        var maxDistance = editDistanceMatrix[newIndex][oldIndex];
        if (maxDistance === undefined)
            return null; // maxAllowedDistance must be too small
        while ((oldIndex > 0) || (newIndex > 0)) {
            var me = editDistanceMatrix[newIndex][oldIndex];
            var distanceViaAdd = (newIndex > 0) ? editDistanceMatrix[newIndex - 1][oldIndex] : maxDistance + 1;
            var distanceViaDelete = (oldIndex > 0) ? editDistanceMatrix[newIndex][oldIndex - 1] : maxDistance + 1;
            var distanceViaRetain = (newIndex > 0) && (oldIndex > 0) ? editDistanceMatrix[newIndex - 1][oldIndex - 1] : maxDistance + 1;
            if ((distanceViaAdd === undefined) || (distanceViaAdd < me - 1)) distanceViaAdd = maxDistance + 1;
            if ((distanceViaDelete === undefined) || (distanceViaDelete < me - 1)) distanceViaDelete = maxDistance + 1;
            if (distanceViaRetain < me - 1) distanceViaRetain = maxDistance + 1;

            if ((distanceViaAdd <= distanceViaDelete) && (distanceViaAdd < distanceViaRetain)) {
                editScript.push({ status: "added", value: newArray[newIndex - 1] });
                newIndex--;
            } else if ((distanceViaDelete < distanceViaAdd) && (distanceViaDelete < distanceViaRetain)) {
                editScript.push({ status: "deleted", value: oldArray[oldIndex - 1] });
                oldIndex--;
            } else {
                editScript.push({ status: "retained", value: oldArray[oldIndex - 1] });
                newIndex--;
                oldIndex--;
            }
        }
        return editScript.reverse();
    }

    ko.utils.compareArrays = function (oldArray, newArray, maxEditsToConsider) {
        if (maxEditsToConsider === undefined) {
            return ko.utils.compareArrays(oldArray, newArray, 1)                 // First consider likely case where there is at most one edit (very fast)
                || ko.utils.compareArrays(oldArray, newArray, 10)                // If that fails, account for a fair number of changes while still being fast
                || ko.utils.compareArrays(oldArray, newArray, Number.MAX_VALUE); // Ultimately give the right answer, even though it may take a long time
        } else {
            oldArray = oldArray || [];
            newArray = newArray || [];
            var editDistanceMatrix = calculateEditDistanceMatrix(oldArray, newArray, maxEditsToConsider);
            return findEditScriptFromEditDistanceMatrix(editDistanceMatrix, oldArray, newArray);
        }
    };
})();

ko.exportSymbol('utils.compareArrays', ko.utils.compareArrays);

(function () {
    // Objective:
    // * Given an input array, a container DOM node, and a function from array elements to arrays of DOM nodes,
    //   map the array elements to arrays of DOM nodes, concatenate together all these arrays, and use them to populate the container DOM node
    // * Next time we're given the same combination of things (with the array possibly having mutated), update the container DOM node
    //   so that its children is again the concatenation of the mappings of the array elements, but don't re-map any array elements that we
    //   previously mapped - retain those nodes, and just insert/delete other ones

    // "callbackAfterAddingNodes" will be invoked after any "mapping"-generated nodes are inserted into the container node
    // You can use this, for example, to activate bindings on those nodes.

    function fixUpVirtualElements(contiguousNodeArray) {
        // Ensures that contiguousNodeArray really *is* an array of contiguous siblings, even if some of the interior
        // ones have changed since your array was first built (e.g., because your array contains virtual elements, and
        // their virtual children changed when binding was applied to them).
        // This is needed so that we can reliably remove or update the nodes corresponding to a given array item

        if (contiguousNodeArray.length > 2) {
            // Build up the actual new contiguous node set
            var current = contiguousNodeArray[0], last = contiguousNodeArray[contiguousNodeArray.length - 1], newContiguousSet = [current];
            while (current !== last) {
                current = current.nextSibling;
                if (!current) // Won't happen, except if the developer has manually removed some DOM elements (then we're in an undefined scenario)
                    return;
                newContiguousSet.push(current);
            }

            // ... then mutate the input array to match this.
            // (The following line replaces the contents of contiguousNodeArray with newContiguousSet)
            Array.prototype.splice.apply(contiguousNodeArray, [0, contiguousNodeArray.length].concat(newContiguousSet));
        }
    }

    function mapNodeAndRefreshWhenChanged(containerNode, mapping, valueToMap, callbackAfterAddingNodes, index) {
        // Map this array value inside a dependentObservable so we re-map when any dependency changes
        var mappedNodes = [];
        var dependentObservable = ko.dependentObservable(function() {
            var newMappedNodes = mapping(valueToMap, index) || [];

            // On subsequent evaluations, just replace the previously-inserted DOM nodes
            if (mappedNodes.length > 0) {
                fixUpVirtualElements(mappedNodes);
                ko.utils.replaceDomNodes(mappedNodes, newMappedNodes);
                if (callbackAfterAddingNodes)
                    callbackAfterAddingNodes(valueToMap, newMappedNodes);
            }

            // Replace the contents of the mappedNodes array, thereby updating the record
            // of which nodes would be deleted if valueToMap was itself later removed
            mappedNodes.splice(0, mappedNodes.length);
            ko.utils.arrayPushAll(mappedNodes, newMappedNodes);
        }, null, { 'disposeWhenNodeIsRemoved': containerNode, 'disposeWhen': function() { return (mappedNodes.length == 0) || !ko.utils.domNodeIsAttachedToDocument(mappedNodes[0]) } });
        return { mappedNodes : mappedNodes, dependentObservable : dependentObservable };
    }

    var lastMappingResultDomDataKey = "setDomNodeChildrenFromArrayMapping_lastMappingResult";

    ko.utils.setDomNodeChildrenFromArrayMapping = function (domNode, array, mapping, options, callbackAfterAddingNodes) {
        // Compare the provided array against the previous one
        array = array || [];
        options = options || {};
        var isFirstExecution = ko.utils.domData.get(domNode, lastMappingResultDomDataKey) === undefined;
        var lastMappingResult = ko.utils.domData.get(domNode, lastMappingResultDomDataKey) || [];
        var lastArray = ko.utils.arrayMap(lastMappingResult, function (x) { return x.arrayEntry; });
        var editScript = ko.utils.compareArrays(lastArray, array);

        // Build the new mapping result
        var newMappingResult = [];
        var lastMappingResultIndex = 0;
        var nodesToDelete = [];
        var newMappingResultIndex = 0;
        var nodesAdded = [];
        var insertAfterNode = null;
        for (var i = 0, j = editScript.length; i < j; i++) {
            switch (editScript[i].status) {
                case "retained":
                    // Just keep the information - don't touch the nodes
                    var dataToRetain = lastMappingResult[lastMappingResultIndex];
                    dataToRetain.indexObservable(newMappingResultIndex);
                    newMappingResultIndex = newMappingResult.push(dataToRetain);
                    if (dataToRetain.domNodes.length > 0)
                        insertAfterNode = dataToRetain.domNodes[dataToRetain.domNodes.length - 1];
                    lastMappingResultIndex++;
                    break;

                case "deleted":
                    // Stop tracking changes to the mapping for these nodes
                    lastMappingResult[lastMappingResultIndex].dependentObservable.dispose();

                    // Queue these nodes for later removal
                    fixUpVirtualElements(lastMappingResult[lastMappingResultIndex].domNodes);
                    ko.utils.arrayForEach(lastMappingResult[lastMappingResultIndex].domNodes, function (node) {
                        nodesToDelete.push({
                          element: node,
                          index: i,
                          value: editScript[i].value
                        });
                        insertAfterNode = node;
                    });
                    lastMappingResultIndex++;
                    break;

                case "added":
                    var valueToMap = editScript[i].value;
                    var indexObservable = ko.observable(newMappingResultIndex);
                    var mapData = mapNodeAndRefreshWhenChanged(domNode, mapping, valueToMap, callbackAfterAddingNodes, indexObservable);
                    var mappedNodes = mapData.mappedNodes;

                    // On the first evaluation, insert the nodes at the current insertion point
                    newMappingResultIndex = newMappingResult.push({
                        arrayEntry: editScript[i].value,
                        domNodes: mappedNodes,
                        dependentObservable: mapData.dependentObservable,
                        indexObservable: indexObservable
                    });
                    for (var nodeIndex = 0, nodeIndexMax = mappedNodes.length; nodeIndex < nodeIndexMax; nodeIndex++) {
                        var node = mappedNodes[nodeIndex];
                        nodesAdded.push({
                          element: node,
                          index: i,
                          value: editScript[i].value
                        });
                        if (insertAfterNode == null) {
                            // Insert "node" (the newly-created node) as domNode's first child
                            ko.virtualElements.prepend(domNode, node);
                        } else {
                            // Insert "node" into "domNode" immediately after "insertAfterNode"
                            ko.virtualElements.insertAfter(domNode, node, insertAfterNode);
                        }
                        insertAfterNode = node;
                    }
                    if (callbackAfterAddingNodes)
                        callbackAfterAddingNodes(valueToMap, mappedNodes, indexObservable);
                    break;
            }
        }

        ko.utils.arrayForEach(nodesToDelete, function (node) { ko.cleanNode(node.element) });

        var invokedBeforeRemoveCallback = false;
        if (!isFirstExecution) {
            if (options['afterAdd']) {
                for (var i = 0; i < nodesAdded.length; i++)
                    options['afterAdd'](nodesAdded[i].element, nodesAdded[i].index, nodesAdded[i].value);
            }
            if (options['beforeRemove']) {
                for (var i = 0; i < nodesToDelete.length; i++)
                    options['beforeRemove'](nodesToDelete[i].element, nodesToDelete[i].index, nodesToDelete[i].value);
                invokedBeforeRemoveCallback = true;
            }
        }
        if (!invokedBeforeRemoveCallback && nodesToDelete.length) {
            for (var i = 0; i < nodesToDelete.length; i++) {
                var element = nodesToDelete[i].element;
                if (element.parentNode)
                    element.parentNode.removeChild(element);
            }
        }

        // Store a copy of the array items we just considered so we can difference it next time
        ko.utils.domData.set(domNode, lastMappingResultDomDataKey, newMappingResult);
    }
})();

ko.exportSymbol('utils.setDomNodeChildrenFromArrayMapping', ko.utils.setDomNodeChildrenFromArrayMapping);
ko.nativeTemplateEngine = function () {
    this['allowTemplateRewriting'] = false;
}

ko.nativeTemplateEngine.prototype = new ko.templateEngine();
ko.nativeTemplateEngine.prototype['renderTemplateSource'] = function (templateSource, bindingContext, options) {
    var useNodesIfAvailable = !(ko.utils.ieVersion < 9), // IE<9 cloneNode doesn't work properly
        templateNodesFunc = useNodesIfAvailable ? templateSource['nodes'] : null,
        templateNodes = templateNodesFunc ? templateSource['nodes']() : null;

    if (templateNodes) {
        return ko.utils.makeArray(templateNodes.cloneNode(true).childNodes);
    } else {
        var templateText = templateSource['text']();
        return ko.utils.parseHtmlFragment(templateText);
    }
};

ko.nativeTemplateEngine.instance = new ko.nativeTemplateEngine();
ko.setTemplateEngine(ko.nativeTemplateEngine.instance);

ko.exportSymbol('nativeTemplateEngine', ko.nativeTemplateEngine);
(function() {
    ko.jqueryTmplTemplateEngine = function () {
        // Detect which version of jquery-tmpl you're using. Unfortunately jquery-tmpl
        // doesn't expose a version number, so we have to infer it.
        // Note that as of Knockout 1.3, we only support jQuery.tmpl 1.0.0pre and later,
        // which KO internally refers to as version "2", so older versions are no longer detected.
        var jQueryTmplVersion = this.jQueryTmplVersion = (function() {
            if ((typeof(jQuery) == "undefined") || !(jQuery['tmpl']))
                return 0;
            // Since it exposes no official version number, we use our own numbering system. To be updated as jquery-tmpl evolves.
            try {
                if (jQuery['tmpl']['tag']['tmpl']['open'].toString().indexOf('__') >= 0) {
                    // Since 1.0.0pre, custom tags should append markup to an array called "__"
                    return 2; // Final version of jquery.tmpl
                }
            } catch(ex) { /* Apparently not the version we were looking for */ }

            return 1; // Any older version that we don't support
        })();

        function ensureHasReferencedJQueryTemplates() {
            if (jQueryTmplVersion < 2)
                throw new Error("Your version of jQuery.tmpl is too old. Please upgrade to jQuery.tmpl 1.0.0pre or later.");
        }

        function executeTemplate(compiledTemplate, data, jQueryTemplateOptions) {
            return jQuery['tmpl'](compiledTemplate, data, jQueryTemplateOptions);
        }

        this['renderTemplateSource'] = function(templateSource, bindingContext, options) {
            options = options || {};
            ensureHasReferencedJQueryTemplates();

            // Ensure we have stored a precompiled version of this template (don't want to reparse on every render)
            var precompiled = templateSource['data']('precompiled');
            if (!precompiled) {
                var templateText = templateSource['text']() || "";
                // Wrap in "with($whatever.koBindingContext) { ... }"
                templateText = "{{ko_with $item.koBindingContext}}" + templateText + "{{/ko_with}}";

                precompiled = jQuery['template'](null, templateText);
                templateSource['data']('precompiled', precompiled);
            }

            var data = [bindingContext['$data']]; // Prewrap the data in an array to stop jquery.tmpl from trying to unwrap any arrays
            var jQueryTemplateOptions = jQuery['extend']({ 'koBindingContext': bindingContext }, options['templateOptions']);

            var resultNodes = executeTemplate(precompiled, data, jQueryTemplateOptions);
            resultNodes['appendTo'](document.createElement("div")); // Using "appendTo" forces jQuery/jQuery.tmpl to perform necessary cleanup work

            jQuery['fragments'] = {}; // Clear jQuery's fragment cache to avoid a memory leak after a large number of template renders
            return resultNodes;
        };

        this['createJavaScriptEvaluatorBlock'] = function(script) {
            return "{{ko_code ((function() { return " + script + " })()) }}";
        };

        this['addTemplate'] = function(templateName, templateMarkup) {
            document.write("<script type='text/html' id='" + templateName + "'>" + templateMarkup + "</script>");
        };

        if (jQueryTmplVersion > 0) {
            jQuery['tmpl']['tag']['ko_code'] = {
                open: "__.push($1 || '');"
            };
            jQuery['tmpl']['tag']['ko_with'] = {
                open: "with($1) {",
                close: "} "
            };
        }
    };

    ko.jqueryTmplTemplateEngine.prototype = new ko.templateEngine();

    // Use this one by default *only if jquery.tmpl is referenced*
    var jqueryTmplTemplateEngineInstance = new ko.jqueryTmplTemplateEngine();
    if (jqueryTmplTemplateEngineInstance.jQueryTmplVersion > 0)
        ko.setTemplateEngine(jqueryTmplTemplateEngineInstance);

    ko.exportSymbol('jqueryTmplTemplateEngine', ko.jqueryTmplTemplateEngine);
})();
});
})(window,document,navigator);